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Archive for April, 2014

Print Book Case Study Revisited

Monday, April 28th, 2014

This is a continuation of a prior blog article on custom printing and binding a 488-page, 8.5” x 11” perfect-bound book for one of my clients.

She and I have been in almost continuous contact to discuss options for the print book she is producing for a US government agency. Early this week, her clients had some concerns about the binding.

Binding Options for the Government Book

My client asked whether spiral binding would not be cheaper than perfect binding the government book. After confirming this with one of the book printers with whom I work, I noted that spiral binding would in fact be more expensive. First of all, perfect binding is an automated process, and spiral binding would involve handwork, or at least slower mechanical work on a smaller piece of binding equipment.

For longer works such as this 488-page book, it would also be difficult to feed the drilled pages onto the curved plastic or metal spiral wire. Finally, it would allow the book to lie open on a table, but due to the nature of a spiral, the facing pages would not exactly align (for this you would need a Wire-O binding).

Then my client asked about saddle stitching. So I explained that shorter print books are ideal for this method (fewer than 72 pages, or 96, depending on whom you’re asking as well as on the paper weight and caliper). However, a 488-page book would not be appropriate for saddle stitching.

I did, however, mention side stitching, the kind of binding that used to be the hallmark of National Geographic. In this method, the tines of the staples go straight down through the stacked pages of the print book. However, such a book would be difficult to open and would never lie flat (or even close to flat) on a table.

So we went back to perfect binding, which was my preferred method after all.

A Bind-In, Foldover Page

I had mentioned in the last blog article that my client had requested a foldover insert that she had wanted to be bound into the book near the textual reference to this additional piece.

Initially, she had wanted it to be near the reference, and I had explained that it would need to be inserted between printing signatures or at the back of the print book. That said, I had also offered to produce the 11” x 17” folded piece as a freestanding poster that could be hand-inserted into the back of the book. Granted, this would be more expensive than a bind-in.

In addition, I noted that the book printer could perf the foldover insert if she wished. This way, a reader could open the perfect-bound book and easily tear out the poster without disturbing the other pages. Moreover, the process would be inexpensive, since it could probably be done inline. Instead of perforating the page on the finishing equipment, the printer could probably do a “wet-perf” or litho-perf, right inline as the printing process occurred. In this case, the perfing rule could be attached to the printing plate. As the plate revolved, it would perforate the press sheet.

Preferred Vendor Status

One final question arose during my discussions with my client: the ability of each book printer bidding on the job to accept work from the government. Ironically, I had never brokered such a job before.

How does a printer effect a financial transaction with the government, I wondered. I did some research and found that a printer can get on the “preferred provider” list for a particular government agency. Granted, this involves some paperwork, but for recurring work for a government agency, this can be quite lucrative.

Of the four book printers I approached to provide estimates for this 488-page perfect-bound book, three printers had pursued this option and had begun doing work for the government, and one had elected not to pursue such work.

What You Can Learn from This Case Study

  1. First of all, look into various bindery methods when you design a book. Be aware that, in many cases, the book length will determine the binding method. For instance, you would saddle stitch a 48-page book but not a 488-page book.
  2. Mechanical binding involves hand work, so it is more expensive than an automated process such as perfect binding. If you’re producing 400 copies of a book for a convention, you might GBC (plastic comb) bind a 488-page print book (since it’s too long for spiral binding). But for 10,000 copies, you’d opt for perfect binding.
  3. Discuss payment options early in the process. Don’t get blindsided. If you need to find a vendor that works with government contracts, it’s best to find this out earlier rather than later.

Custom Printing: Two Responses to Printing Problems

Saturday, April 26th, 2014

In a prior blog, I mentioned a print book directory, the custom printing of which I had been brokering. I had requested F&Gs for the client: folded and gathered signatures, printed but not bound. I had suggested this as a final press proof prior to binding, to give my client an opportunity to check all printing prior to the binding stage.

Any serious printing problems could be remedied by reprinting one signature rather than either reprinting the whole book or removing the book covers, then reprinting a signature, and then rebinding the book and trimming it a second time. Such an option would save the book printing vendor and my client time and stress should an egregious error be caught.

Needless to say, an error occurred. There was an ink streak in a paid ad.

Checking the Extent of the Problem

I had the book printer stop all production after my client and I found the error. The first priority was to determine its extent. And since the error damaged an ad a client had paid dearly to purchase, I made it clear that the printer would need to remedy the problem.

This was a Friday evening. On Monday, I spoke with the customer service representative and was told that most copies included the smeared ink. The printer had learned this by checking all printed signatures. If the book signatures had not yet been folded and trimmed, the printer would have determined the extent of the error by checking press sheets pulled at various times during the press run.

Some errors (like hickies) come and go during the custom printing process, and by checking every so many copies of the printed piece at distinct intervals, it’s possible to say with some certainty just how many copies out of the entire press run have a problem.

The Printer Makes Good on the Job

This is a stellar book printer. In fact, the client had been sending the job to this supplier for several years in spite of his prices being slightly higher than those of his peers.

The book printer did not wait until asked. He reprinted the signature over the weekend to stay on schedule and then started rebinding the book on Monday. My client was most pleased. I would not be surprised if the client returns to this vendor for next year’s print book directory.

Some Options Not Taken

But what if the blemish had been less noticeable, or not in the middle of the ad? In some cases a printer’s error is annoying but not seriously disruptive. Maybe it does not threaten a non-profit’s relationship with a paid advertiser. In such cases, a client may request a discount.

Such a negotiation is delicate. Depending on the severity of the problem, I have asked printers to discount a client’s bill ten percent or more for problematic work. Usually the commercial printing supplier sees this as a way to keep a client happy and foster a continuing relationship.

In other cases, the error is not the printer’s fault. A client of mine printed white ink on a beige paper stock. Only the headlines were printed in white. It had been an interesting design choice, but the letterforms were just too small for optimal readability. It was a design decision, so it was not the printer’s responsibility to absorb the cost. However, he wanted a happy client.

The client had printed many jobs at this particular vendor, so the printer offered to reprint the job at cost, which was a significant discount to the original price for the first custom printing job. This maintained good will with the client, but the printer was not penalized for an error that was not his fault.

Another Case: A Beauty Salon Postcard

I just received a postcard in the mail that had been sent to my fiancee. It was from a beauty salon, and there was a huge gash next to the face of the model in the cover photo. It actually looked like silver foil wrapped around the model’s braided hair, so I missed it at first glance. But my fiancee immediately brought it to my attention.

I looked at the blemish under a high-powered printer’s loupe. I saw no printer’s halftone dots under the 4-inch streak down the page, so I thought it might have been something on the custom printing plate that had blocked the transfer of ink from the plate to the blanket to the paper.

However, under closer observation, I saw scratches (repeated hatch marks) all going in the same direction. Therefore, my guess at this point is that one of the mailshop or postal machines actually gouged the printed image, rubbing off the magenta ink.

The Lesson Learned

For such a job, I would have started my discussion with the printer, the mailshop, and the Post Office using this initial observation. I would have asked all involved parties for an assessment. However, since the job is specifically an advertising vehicle (a postcard), I would have been more likely to request a reprint than a discount, depending on the extent of the problem.

Large Format Printing: Producing Signage on Coroplast

Friday, April 25th, 2014

Ever since the basement electrical fire, Home Depot and Lowes have been my homes away from home. And these first few weeks of Spring, in particular, I have seen brightly colored signage printed on Coroplast, urging customers to plant trees, shrubs, and flowers.

What Is Coroplast?

Coroplast is actually a trade name rather than a product. It is corrugated plastic, and from the edge, it looks very much like corrugated paper board, in that it is composed of a fluted interior sandwiched between two layers of flat plastic sheeting.

And just like corrugated board, Coroplast is both durable and light in weight due to its particular construction.

Printing on Coroplast

One of the best things about Coroplast is that you can print on it using either screen printing (for long print runs) or inkjet equipment (for shorter runs). That said, plastic is not porous, so it can be frustrating to print on such a smooth surface. The ink can cake up and flake off since it doesn’t actually seep into the substrate.

One way around this problem is to treat the plastic surface with alcohol prior to printing, and another way to deal with the smoothness of the plastic base is to use UV lights to cure UV ink on the Coroplast surface. In fact this is an ideal use for both Coroplast and UV curing technology.

Benefits of Coroplast Large Format Print Signage

I have seen Coroplast signage on the backs of buses as well as inside buildings. It is very durable, and it tolerates weather. Think about the kind of abuse a Coroplast sign can expect on the back of a bus, between the toxic gas fumes, dirt, rain, and constant sunlight. When you need an inexpensive substrate that’s light and durable for signage or advertising, this is one to consider seriously.

Uses of Coroplast for Signage

When I think back to the signage I have seen printed on Coroplast, a number of uses come to mind:

  1. You can produce political signs, and then use wire supports stuck up into the corrugated fluting to support signs that you can then place on people’s lawns.
  2. You can do the same thing with real estate signs.
  3. You can produce intricate POP (point-of-purchase) displays with shelves to hold products, such as cosmetics. You can either print directly on these plastic structures or print on substrates (like laminated custom label paper) that can be affixed to the Coroplast with an adhesive.

Options for Custom Printing on Coroplast

As noted above, if your press run is too large for inkjet equipment, Coroplast works well with screen printing inks. In fact, you may have noticed the difference in real estate or political signage. In most cases, if you see simple, two-color, large format print signage, it’s probably made using custom screen printing. If the signage is more intricate, with halftones, gradations, and multiple colors, it probably was inkjet printed.

What You Cannot Do with Coroplast

Think about it. An offset press puts the commercial printing paper stock under tremendous pressure. That’s why you would offset print a project first and then emboss or deboss it. If you reversed the process and first embossed a job which you then offset printed, the pressure of the press rollers would crush the embossing.

The same is true for offset printing on fluted corrugated board or even on plastic corrugated board (such as Coroplast).

Therefore, your best bets are still custom screen printing, digital inkjet printing, and/or possibly flexography, which is the process used for custom printing large simple designs on paper corrugated board.

Book Printing: Too Many Variables; What to Do?

Tuesday, April 22nd, 2014

A client of mine does work for the federal government. She has a large book that’s mostly complete, and she’s looking for printing options. She has a firm budget.

The book is an 8.5” x 11” soft-cover text, 478 pages without an index (which will come shortly, once it has been laid out). Based on last year’s print book, I have estimated the total page count at 488 pages (at least for this round of book production estimates). This is fortunate, since it works out to be fifteen 32-page signatures plus an 8-page signature.

Depending on the final press run, I will send this to either a sheetfed printer or a web-fed printer. Nevertheless, the web-fed printer might still have trouble with the page count. I would think that the 32-page signatures would work on a web press, but the 8-page signature will probably require handwork.

Adding More Color to the Text

That said, this print book might still be too expensive if produced on a web press, since many web presses are for black-only text, and my client wants this to include a 2-color or 4-color text block. The book printer I approach would probably need an 8-unit, heatset, full-web press to do the 4-color option.

A Moving Target: Too Many Variables

These are a lot of variables (press run, printing technology, text ink…). So what I’m going to do is ask three large book printing companies distributed across the USA for their suggestions of how best to spend the budget—approximately $40K–on a web-fed offset product, sheetfed offset product, or web-fed inkjet product, depending on how many copies the printer can provide for $40K on their most appropriately configured commercial printing equipment.

The option for 2C vs. 4C text will be a further dividing line.

Then, based on the general feedback from the three custom printing vendors, we can tweak the specifications to choose the best printer with the best equipment and adjust the print book specifications for the most economical printing and binding run.

I expect this will take several attempts. That is why I chose printers with multiple printing plants and many kinds of technology and equipment. Initial specifications from my client had ranged from a 1,600 to 10,000 press run. So this isn’t quick and easy. It’s a process.

An Insert: An Additional Challenge

My client also asked for an 11” x 17” insert that would be folded into the book to be flush with the other 8.5” x 11” print book pages.

I told her she had a few options. Even though she wanted the foldout to fall at the exact spot in which the textual reference to the chart is made, I explained that it would need to go between signatures in the perfect-bound book. That could cause problems. After all, that might mean that the bound-in insert could land far from the text reference, maybe even in a subsequent chapter.

To be safe, I suggested that my client put the insert at the back of the book and then include a footnote in the text that will send the reader to the end of the book to see the chart. This way there’s no chance that the insert will fall in an uncomfortable place unrelated to the paragraph to which it pertains.

To be even safer, economically, I’ve even asked the book printer to bid on a free-standing 11” x 17” poster, folded down to 8.5” x 11”, that might be inserted in the back of the book without being bound in. If this is cheaper, my client might choose this approach.

What You Can Learn

Granted, estimates aren’t free. Somebody has to take the time to do the math, even if it’s not billable to the client. However, a good printer will be willing to run some numbers to help you determine the best technology given your specifications.

A good printer might even be willing to crunch some numbers and work backwards from a budget target to a press-run copy-count. After all, for a print book this large, he stands to make a lot of money.

In addition, since printers tend to have different kinds of equipment, a knowledgeable printer can usually look at your specs and either agree that the job is a “fit” or make some suggestions to make it more appropriate for his custom printing equipment.

Overall, the best thing you can do is read voraciously. Study all the various technologies and make them familiar territory. Becoming a student of printing will make your discussions with custom printing suppliers more fruitful.

Also, if you choose larger printers with more than one technology (such as a web press, a sheetfed press, and a digital press), they will have an intuitive feel—based on their actual experience—of how best to proceed with your job.

Commercial Printing: Print Samples in a Hotel Room

Thursday, April 17th, 2014

My fiancee and I are now living in a hotel. We had a house fire, just like a surprising number of other tenants on their way through hotel rooms to their final accommodations in a long-term rental house or condo. Fire is a big business.

The again, so is commercial printing. And one item I managed to extract from the house is my printer’s loupe. Another is my sense of adventure and my love of custom printing. Needless to say, living in a hotel room with these tools, I have noticed samples of printing that I want to share with you.

The Printed Plastic Key Cards

I looked at the key cards under my loupe and didn’t see a dot pattern in the graphic images adorning my fiancee’s card and my own. Therefore, I surmised that neither offset printing nor laser printing (electrophotography) had been used to print these plastic keys. Since this leaves inkjet printing, my educated guess is that the images and text had been inkjet printed using UV inks or solvent inks, since plastic is not porous. The cards might also have been laminated, but this didn’t seem to be the case.

An online search made it very clear that magnetic strip technology and RFID are booming, with plastic key cards being the preferred security vehicle for numerous industries.

From a design point of view I was equally impressed. My fiancee and I each had a key card. However, the two images were not only attractive and branded to the hotel chain, but they were also totally different. My fiancee and I could tell immediately whether we had both keys. And given our experience at the first hotel after the fire, we were clear that the keys could be easily encoded and rendered void as needed. Can you say that about a metal key?

The Usual Amenities: Soap, Shampoo, Etc.

I didn’t want to leave out the usual amenities you find in a hotel room, since these include the most basic staples of the commercial printing industry: the door hanger, boxes of soap, printed shampoo tubes, even flexible packaging containing shaving cream.

While these were not especially dramatic when compared to the full-color images on the keycards, they were nevertheless quite useful (there’s nothing like the first shower and shampoo after a house fire). Also, they’re clearly keeping both printers and graphic designers employed, and when taken together they provide a portfolio of grooming amenities analogous to an identity package (business card, envelope, and letterhead) for a small business.

The Wall Signage

While not as theatrical as the large format print standees my fiancee and I install, the functional hotel signage played an important role in our stay. Plastic relief signs (the letters were raised and printed in a secondary color to contrast with the background) showed where the laundry room was and how to get out of the building in case of fire. (I would think that many of the long-term residents at this extended-stay hotel already had learned how to get out of a fire at their own homes.)

It looked like these signs had been produced with custom screen printing due to the thick ink used on the raised letterforms. Furthermore, I would think that the background plastic material had been tinted beige with some sort of dye added to the liquid plastic prior to its thermoforming.

One sign showing the escape routes had actually been printed on fiberglass (I noticed the filaments on the four sides that had been cut to create the sign). When I looked closely with my loupe, I saw that the text and drawings had been recessed beneath the surface of the sign. It seems that the printing is either inside the fiberglass sign or there is a coating over the sign. Regardless, the sign isn’t going anywhere. It’s bolted to the front door.

Another plastic sign notes the penalty for smoking (the clean-up fee). Fortunately I don’t smoke. Under a loupe, I can see the equal sized dots that suggest the text had been printed onto the plastic using inkjet technology (probably solvent or UV inks, again, since the plastic substrate is nonporous).

The Refrigerator Magnets

Adorned with everything from “Have a nice day” to a description of how you might want your morning cereal at the hotel’s continental breakfast, the printed magnets all carry a message on small-format, magnet-backed vinyl sheets. Based on their appearance under a loupe, I would say they had been offset printed (probably due to the length of the press run, since digital printing would have been the alternative for a shorter press run). Other samples with thicker ink may have even been produced via custom screen printing.

The Room Service Menu

I can always eat, no matter what disaster has befallen me and mine, so I read the menu at the first hotel (I hadn’t taken any print books out of the fire-damaged and condemned house). Printed on thick paper and coated with a laminate, this menu clearly will tolerate numerous greasy fingers.

The Table-Tent Hotel Instruction Manual

This may not quite be a table tent, but the free-standing, four-ring binders with directions to all manner of hotel-related subjects clearly had required commercial printing, lamination, drilling, and assembly onto the rings. Moreover they were attractive as well as useful.

It All Comes Together to Create a Brand

The piece de resistance was that all items went together on a graphic level to ensure a coordinated branding of the hotel chain. Now that’s foresight.

Custom Printing: An Approach to Integrated Marketing

Monday, April 14th, 2014

A few weeks ago while visiting with a book printing client of mine, I made a few suggestions about promoting three new titles this small publisher was about to produce with my help. He and his wife had a website and some marketing postcards, and they had asked my opinion of how to approach the promotion of these new print books.

I was excited about the helping this couple, so I closely reviewed this publisher’s printed and online materials to get a sense of their current marketing strategy and hopefully help improve it.

My Approach to Their Website

First of all, the three print books I have helped him and his wife produce have been glorious, with French Flaps, deckled edged cream paper, and a heavy cover stock. They epitomize the tactile qualities that only a good print book can provide.

I reviewed the publisher’s website and made these suggestions:

  1. He and his wife should have a goal in mind. The website should be more than an online brochure. It should reflect the visual branding of their books, and it should invite the reader to contact the publisher and order more books, sign up for a mailing list, or whatever else my client wants the reader to do. But it needs to encourage the reader to actually do something.
  2. The website should be simple and easily navigable, with links to print book descriptions, a publisher’s contact page that can accept reader address information, and perhaps a calendar of the book launches and other promotional events the publisher hosts periodically. These links should be immediately visible at the top of the web page, and should perhaps be accompanied by a large image that reflects the tenor of his and his wife’s publishing house. I don’t think the website needs a lot of pages. Only a few, with immediately visible contact information, will do nicely.

My Approach to Their Postcard

The publisher suggested that we create a marketing postcard that would ask for information about the reader to create a book sales list and a subscription newsletter. I encouraged him and his wife to also link electronically back to their website, perhaps using PURLs (personalized landing pages), which would give a consistent look to the promotional campaign.

The postcards could be inserted into the books, so readers could immediately get back in touch with the publisher, get on a mailing list, and continue a dialogue about the book. I thought that a tie between a print book presence, a marketing postcard, and an online presence would reinforce each of the three marketing initiatives. In fact, it wouldn’t hurt to not only insert the marketing postcard into the books but to also send it to a select list of prospective buyers.

My Approach to The PURLs

My client could add a web link to the postcard text that the recipient of the postcard could type into his or her browser to connect to the publisher’s website. Or the publisher could include a 2-D barcode (known as a QR, or Quick Response, code that the reader could capture with his or her smartphone). This could send the reader to the publisher’s website. If my client wanted to go further, image recognition software now exists that would allow the reader to point his or her smartphone camera at a photographic image on the postcard (not a QR code) and be linked to the publisher’s website.

My Approach to Their Signage

My client and his wife also attend trade shows. As a small print book publisher, they can expand the visual identity reflected in their books, marketing postcards, and website by choosing from a number of trade show graphic devices.

They could cover their trade show table with a table-throw, which could have their logo and identity information emblazoned on the side facing the show attendees.

They could also produce banner stands (large format print graphics that could completely surround their space at the booth), or smaller collapsible graphic stands.

Some of the banner stands are miniature, and would go nicely on the top of the table. Others are larger, and could be placed on the floor for a more dynamic look (one at a time or three or more side by side). And the most dramatic large format print graphics would completely surround the back of the booth, providing a startling view of the color, imagery, and tone of my client’s publishing house.

Book Printing: How to Review a Book “Blueline” Proof

Thursday, April 3rd, 2014

I realize they’re not really “bluelines” anymore, now that printer’s proofs are produced via inkjet technology, but the term is resilient, and some printers still call these digital inkjet proofs by their former name.

I received a printer’s digital blueline for a print book I’m designing and print brokering. It is a directory, composed of covers that print on both sides of the press sheet (ads on three covers, plus the art for the spine and front cover), 36 pages of four-color front matter (editorial, photos, and ads), and a 144-page, two-color directory listing. The book is 180 pages in length.

I approached the task of checking the proof before handing it off to my client in the following way. I thought you might find this useful information as you craft your own approach to reviewing a print book proof.

What I Looked For in the Proof

As a designer, I was clear that this proof was my last chance to check everything. According to commercial printing industry standards, once I (and my client) had approved the proof, any errors would no longer be the book printer’s responsibility.

Checking for Completeness of Copy

First I compared the hard-copy proof to the final, on-screen PDF of the job. I wanted to make sure all elements were present. That is, I checked the ads I had placed on the book covers and in the front matter. Since I had placed them as PDFs (as provided by the ad clients of this particular nonprofit agency), I knew it was very unlikely that any problems would have arisen.

Although I had provided the covers and book front-matter as InDesign files (editable by the commercial printing vendor, if necessary), I knew the PDFs of the ads were pretty much indestructible. In contrast, I carefully checked the completeness of all editorial copy (produced from editable, InDesign data) as well as line breaks and use of italics, boldface, and color in the text.

I also checked the running headers (knowing that since I had placed them on InDesign master pages they would probably be fine, or at least that they would all be the same). And I checked the folios (to make sure they were all present, accurate, and in order).

Checking Margin, Trim, and Placement of Design Elements

This includes the alignment of facing pages. They were off in some cases, not aligning across the top margin. I assumed that the misalignment was due to the printer’s having hand-trimmed the inkjet proof. However, to be certain, I noted the pages that did not align. When I met with my client to hand off the proof, I also pointed out the quantity, color usage, cover coating, and paper specifications noted on the book printer’s proof sign-off sheets.

In addition, I checked the cropping of the photos on the proof. Had I provided PDF files (which some printers prefer), I would have been less meticulous about all this checking. After all, it’s a trade-off. Starting with an InDesign file rather than a PDF, the printer could easily repair any problems he found, rather than having me correct the files and resubmit them, but he could also inadvertently introduce errors into the InDesign files.

Checking Color

Knowing that the color in the ads and editorial photos would not be as brilliant as they had appeared on the computer screen (i.e., reflective art in the proof vs. a backlit, on-screen image on the computer), I checked the color in the book. Since it was pleasing (editorial images were essentially snapshots, and the ads were imaged exactly as provided by the ad agency), I passed the proof on to my client at the non-profit agency.

Checking the Cover

I had submitted the cover as individual pages and a spine. Some printers prefer this. When they have figured out the thickness of the spine based on the caliper of the interior pages, they stitch the covers and spine together onto one large InDesign page. Again, since the printer did this to the InDesign file I had provided, I checked the proof very carefully. The type on the spine seemed to ride a little high (it didn’t seem to be floating on the spine exactly halfway between the front and back covers), so I noted this on the correction list.

Checking the Directory Listings

Since I had provided the directory listings section of the book as a high-res PDF, I knew these proof pages would pretty much be perfect. After all, PDFs are locked-down files. You can edit them in minor ways with preflight software, but they are not easily damaged (unlike InDesign files).

That said, I still checked the running footers one last time to make sure they accurately reflected the contents of the directory pages (the categories of the listings). I also checked the table of contents page numbers for accuracy as well as the advertiser index page numbers (after all, advertisers had paid good money to be listed in the print book, and I wanted them to be happy).

What You Can Learn from This Case Study

  1. Remember that reviewing a book printer’s proof is not a good time for editing. However, if you see a glaring error, this is the time to fix it. You can always ask the printer how much a correction will cost, and then make your decision whether to proceed. And always ask the printer to send you a revised PDF proof of any pages you change.
  2. Don’t try to check all items in one pass through the print book proof. You’ll miss something. Check the folios throughout the book, then the running headers—or create a system that works for you. Draft a checklist of what needs to be reviewed, and then make a pass through the book for each item (or a few items).
  3. Mark the corrections in the book proof with a red pen (so the notations will stand out), but also include a list of corrections (by page number).
  4. Make sure you check the production specifications on the proof sign-off sheet before you approve the proof. That is, check the quantity, paper specs, color usage, etc. Also note whether you’ll need to see a revised proof.

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