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Printing Industry Exchange ( is pleased to have Steven Waxman writing and managing the Printing Industry Blog. As a printing consultant, Steven teaches corporations how to save money buying printing, brokers printing services, and teaches prepress techniques. Steven has been in the printing industry for thirty-three years working as a writer, editor, print buyer, photographer, graphic designer, art director, and production manager.

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Archive for April, 2011

Printing Companies Create Opulent Solids with Rich Black Ink

Saturday, April 30th, 2011

Printing companies can really make your job “pop” by creating a special mix of process colors called a rich black. For newsletter printing, custom envelopes with heavy solids, even a large format print for a wall hanging, talk with your print provider about the optimal mixture of inks for a rich black.

What is a rich black?

By itself, black as a printing color for either offset or digital presswork can be functional for text but not quite as dark and opulent for large solids as its counterpart: rich black.

For CMYK (or full-color) printing, a rich black is a mixture of all or most process inks, starting with 100 percent black and then adding smaller percentages of the other colors. The exact percentages differ from printer to printer based on their preferences and experience. But it should be noted that screened percentages of the individual process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) are used to achieve this thick, dense black. The colored inks are not actually physically mixed.

When would one specify a rich black?

Let’s say you are designing a book cover with a completely black background except for the title and a photo in the center of the page. In addition to coating the page with a laminate or UV coating to make the background stand out, you might either print two “hits” of black (using two separate black ink units on press) or you might choose to specify a combination of black and other process colors as a rich black. In both cases the goal would be to lay down a thick, rich coating of ink that will be as dense as possible. The bluish and reddish hues in the other process colors can also accentuate this look.

What problems can occur with a rich black on offset equipment?

Too much ink on the page is a bad idea. It won’t dry, the press sheets will stick together or tear apart entirely, or ink will offset from one press sheet to another. Therefore, the goal is to combine enough of the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black to achieve the look of opulence without compromising the printing process. The technical term for this ideal upper limit of ink on the page is “total area coverage” or TAC. Usually this amount is about 260 percent or less (such as 100 percent black, 60 percent magenta, 35 percent cyan, and 60 percent yellow, or some other combination). Full coverage—rather than screens—of all four process colors would create a wet mess.

What problems can occur with a rich black on digital equipment?

You can also create a rich black on a digital press, combining toners in various proportions to augment the richness of the black solids. Unlike offset printing, however, by adding too high a percentage of the various colored toners, you can actually cause the pages to fuse together. Large solids on a digital press are already problematic. Increasing the total amount of toner in any one place, when combined with the high heat and pressure within the digital press, can cause multiple sheets of printing stock to stick together, jamming the equipment.

What is the optimal percentage composition of a rich black?

Wikkipedia notes 50C, 50M, 50Y, and 100K as one option for a rich black. It also includes 70C, 35M, 40Y, and 100K as a cool black (black with a bluish cast). For a warm black (a reddish black), the article suggests 35C, 60M, 60Y, and 100K. Of course these are just starting points for print providers.

It is important to use the various blacks consistently (avoid placing a warm black and a cool black side by side). To be absolutely clear on what to expect, it is also wise to print out separations before sending the job to the printer.

Whether your next design job is a print catalog, custom envelopes, a print newsletter, or even a large format print for a banner stand display, consider specifying a rich black for the solid black ink areas to make your job really “pop.” It costs a little more, but the additional ink absorbs more light, producing a much truer black.

Business Stationery Printing and Logo Design: Some Considerations

Wednesday, April 27th, 2011

At some point in your career, you may be asked to print business cards or custom envelopes, or you may need to print business stationery. The job may involve designing a logo as well. If so, here are a few key concepts you may want to keep in mind during this process.

The logo will be presented in different sizes.

The logo you design will need to capture a client’s attention immediately and convey something about the business (what your client does, and also the tone or values of the business). On a business card the logo may be very small, but on a sign in front of the business the logo may be very large. Keep in mind that the logo is not just the mark (image, pictogram, etc.), but also the words (name of the company and perhaps the tag line). These must be readable and attractive in both large and small sizes.

Rule of Thumb: Make a mock-up of the logo (image and any related type) at multiple levels of enlargement to ensure that it is readable and conveys the company image in a positive light.

The logo will be presented in different orientations.

The logo you design will appear on a business card, on letterhead, on an envelope, perhaps on a statement of account and an invoice, maybe even on the side of a truck or the side of a building. It will probably even appear on the Internet.

Rule of Thumb: Consider how you will treat the logo in multiple orientations (flush left, flush right, centered–at the left top corner of an envelope vs. on a sheet of ). To be safe, create mock ups reflecting all potential uses of the logo and tagline (in different orientations). It will benefit the overall brand and look of the business if all elements of the corporate identity package reflect a coherent “whole,” and the best way to make this happen is to design them as a unified campaign.

The logo may not always appear in the colors you chose for the design.

Let’s say you want to fax a copy of the business invoice to a client. If you fax a document with a red and blue logo (for instance) at the top of the page, the client will receive the logo in black and white. Does a black and white version of the logo you designed still look acceptable?

Rule of Thumb: Design the logo and type treatment (tagline, etc.) in whatever colors you choose, but also see how they look in black and white. The same goes for use on the Internet. Not all web browsers or computer monitors render colors the same. Also, there are some colors that look better than others on the Web. So check your logo on several computers in several browsers to make sure.

Logo design comes up in many venues. Perhaps your client needs you to find a business card printing service, or a vendor for business envelope printing or even business stationery printing. Particularly if you are charged with either designing the logo yourself or hiring a designer and coordinating the design, the more uses you can take into account for the logo and words that accompany it, the better able you will be to provide a unified “look” for the entire corporate identity package.

Custom Book Printers Offer “Mechanical Binding” Options

Saturday, April 23rd, 2011

If your next project involves custom book printing, particularly short-run on demand book printing, here are some custom book printing companies you may not have considered. When producing multiple-page printed documents, you have many more choices than just saddle stitching, side stitching, perfect binding, or traditional case (or hardcover) binding. A number of these fall under the category of “mechanical binding” and may be offered by the book printing services with which you now work.

GBC (or Plastic Comb) Binding

You will recognize this binding because of the flat, plastic tines that curl around each other and loop through holes in the bind-edge of the printed document. Plastic comb binding comes in multiple colors and provides a curved spine onto which you can imprint text. One benefit of this particular mechanical binding is that it can be used for books up to 2.5” thick. The book pages will lie flat when open, so GBC binding would be appropriate for a cookbook, for instance. GBC binding is done by hand on a small metal apparatus that allows you to uncoil the GBC tines and hook the book pages onto the plastic comb before rolling it up again. Since this is considered hand work, it can be expensive.

Wire-O Binding

Think of this as a line of parallel, wire “O’s,” one above the other, attached on one side to a vertical wire. As with GBC binding, Wire-O loops hook through a series of holes drilled along the bind edge of the book pages. Since the loops are parallel, this mechanical binding technique is good for pages with crossovers (the crossovers will line up from the left-hand to the right-hand pages). Unlike GBC bound books, Wire-O books can open almost 360 degrees (pages can be folded back over each other). This binding is metal, unlike GBC, but the wire can still be purchased in multiple colors. Like GBC, this is an expensive binding method. You may have seen Wire-O notebooks in the school supply section of discount stores, or you may have seen Wire-O cookbooks (with the wire loops somewhat hidden by the hard-cover binding).

PlastiCoil Binding

Spiral wire binding is similar to Wire-O binding, but instead of being a stack of parallel metal loops (or “O’s”), this binding is made of a single metal coil winding its way (spiraling) through all of the holes drilled in the bind edge of the book. You can open a spiral wire book to lie flat on a table, but the wire can be easily crushed, making it hard to ever again turn the pages. To remedy this, PlastiCoil (a plastic version of spiral wire binding) is ideal. Plastic has memory. If you crush the coiled plastic wire (within reason), it will snap back to its original shape. PlastiCoil also comes in multiple colors. This bindng allows 360 degree opening (like Wire-O). However, it can only be used to bind books up to 1.25” thick.

Velo Binding

Also known as “strip binding,” this process is an attractive option for thicker books (up to 3”). Velo binding comes in multiple colors and is composed of a plastic strip running vertically along the bind edge of both the front and back covers of the book. The parallel plastic strips are attached to perpendicular plastic tines that extend through holes along the bind edge of all book pages. When attached, the strip on the front cover, the strip on the back cover, and all the tines running through the text hold all the pages firmly together. These books will not lie flat.

Screw and Post Binding

Similar to Velo binding, this option involves two or three large (often metal) screws extending through all pages of the book at the bind edge. The screws (on the front of the book) attach to posts that have flat heads (at the back of the book). When assembled, the screw heads and post heads pull all book pages together (like the Velo binding does). Similar to Velo bound books, screw and post bound books cannot lie flat. Unlike most of the other mechanical binding methods, however, screw and post binding allows for easy updating of the book pages (you just unscrew and disassemble the book, then replace the pages and reassemble the book).

Short-run Case Binding and Perfect Binding

Case binding (or hardcover binding) and perfect binding (softcover binding) used to be available only for long press runs of books. The start-up costs were simply too high for short press runs. But, increasingly, small binding systems are being manufactured for on demand book printing, allowing vendors to produce individual hard-cover (both paper and cloth-bound) and soft-cover books. “One-off,” custom photo books are an example of this trend, as are individual children’s books into which your son’s or daughter’s name can be digitally inserted as a character in the story. Making one hard-cover book used to be impossible, or astronomically expensive. But not anymore.

If your next project involves custom book printing, ask your business printing services about mechanical binding options. Custom book binding services will also be of help with mechanical binding.

Custom Printing on Seeded Paper: Avoid the Pitfalls

Tuesday, April 19th, 2011

A client of mine was recently looking for printing companies for a single-page panel invitation. The most appropriate vendor for this particular project was a printer with both an HP Indigo digital press and a small-format offset press. He specialized in business printing work such as custom envelopes, print newsletters, and the like.

Production of this job hit some bumps. Here is what happened, along with the lessons learned.

Problem #1: Client Chose Hand-Made Printing Paper That Was Not Readily Available

Background: The client had seen a sample invitation printed on “seeded paper” (paper with actual seeds embedded in the stock). She loved it and wanted a similar product for her upcoming event. The job was a very short run (300 copies), and since it was to be printed in 4-color process ink, a digital printer with an HP Indigo was the ideal vendor. In addition, I believed the Indigo would be the best digital press for high-end (or difficult) work. Since the paper was unusual, I called a paper merchant for advice, and also checked the Internet for “seeded paper.” Apparently the paper was hand-made and not readily available.

Solution: Based on suggestions from the paper vendor, I found two sources for seeded paper. Both were halfway across the country. I called to request samples for both the client and the digital printer. When the client had chosen the paper stock and color, and the printer had determined its “runnability” (ability of a press sheet to be used efficiently on a particular press without undue problems occurring and slowing down the process) on the Indigo press, I ordered a specially made batch of paper sufficient for the 300 invitations (plus potential waste). Paper manufacturing had to occur within a tight window of time to allow for printing and delivery by the client’s deadline.

Lesson Learned: Particularly when unusual paper stocks are involved, start early. Involve the printer. Leave room in the schedule for testing the process and paper.

Problem #2: Printing Paper Didn’t Feed Properly

Background: The paper was hand made. Therefore, the paper caliper (thickness of the paper) varied from sheet to sheet. This caused paper jams in the Indigo (while using up the limited stock of paper).

Solution: The printer was able to slow the process down by feeding each sheet, one at a time, into the Indigo digital press. This minimized paper jamming. The printer was able to print all 300 invitations using the available paper (without needing to order more, which would have compromised the schedule).

Potential Alternate Solution: If hand-feeding the paper into the digital press had not worked, the next step would have been to print the job on a small offset press. Fortunately, this particular printer had both offset and digital capabilities in-house (for a job like this, it’s wise to choose a printer with both).

Lesson Learned: Don’t assume the paper you like will be runnable on press. Have a back-up plan. Choose a printer with more than one printing capability.

That said, according to the paper manufacturer, seeded paper can go through a digital press and then be planted (literally), and the seeds will grow. On the other hand, the high pressure of the blanket and rollers in an offset press might crush the seeds in the paper and render them unable to sprout and grow. So it was fortunate that the printer was able to do the job on the Indigo.

Business printing is an art and a craft. The success of your custom printing job depends on the skill and knowledge of your vendor as well as his printing equipment.

Custom Printing for a Die-cut Invitation: A Case Study

Saturday, April 16th, 2011

A client of mine recently needed custom printing services for a six-page invitation (three on one side and three on the other) for an upcoming promotional event. The vendor in question was a small-format printer with digital capabilities as well as offset equipment. He specialized in brochure printing, on demand book printing, and other small jobs.

I thought the production of this job might illustrate a number of design and printing decisions that would be of interest to PIE Blog readers.


The unfolded invitation comprised three panels on one side and three on the other. The right-most panel folded over the center panel, and the left-most panel folded over the other two, yielding a 5” x 7” piece. The top panel (when folded) had a die-cut rectangle that allowed the text below to show through. The vendor printed 200 copies on an offset press in metallic silver and black.

Decision #1: Printing Technology Chosen

In most cases a printer would produce a job this small on a digital press (perhaps an HP Indigo). However, silver ink is not available for the Indigo. (HP does offer selected additional inks along with cyan, magenta, yellow, and black—just not metallic silver.) Therefore, the job had to be printed on an offset press.

Decision #2: Number of Inks Used

Initially, the job was to be printed primarily in silver ink. There was a lot of small text in the interior of the invitation, so I suggested adding black ink for the small text. The silver might have looked good in a PMS swatch book as a solid square, but when used to reproduce small text with fine lines and serifs, the type would have been unreadable. The contrast of black ink on white paper improved the legibility of the type. The client still used silver for large, flat solids and larger, display type.

Decision #3: Paper Stock Specified

Initially the job comprised two panels, front and back, rather than three. The client had specified 100# cover stock, a nice, substantial weight for an invitation. When the additional panel was added, the client moved to a thinner, 80# cover stock. This reduced the bulk of the entire folded invitation to a manageable thickness and potentially lowered the cost of postage (lighter items cost less to mail).

Decision #4: Schedule

Die-cutting takes time and extra expense. The die has to be made by an outside vendor (usually not your printer), and the die-cutting has to be done on a letterpress after the printing is dry (sometimes not by your printer, depending on his equipment). The client, who needed the job fast, had to be alerted that the die-cutting step added two to three days to the schedule.

Decision #5: Flat Size of Invitation

When the job was initially a four-page invitation, rather than a six-page invitation, both panels could be 5” x 7” for a total flat size of 10” x 7”. When the extra panel was added to the design (three panels, six pages), the innermost panel needed to be 1/8” shorter than the others to fold in without buckling.

Business printing is not a commodity, as this example of an actual job illustrates. It requires skill and knowledge. The job noted above proceeded smoothly through printing and finishing operations because the client made wise choices with the help of a knowledgeable custom printing service.

Printing Services That Specialize in More Exotic, Custom Printing

Wednesday, April 13th, 2011

Not all business printing jobs involve “ink on paper.” Some are more unusual than a print catalog, a print newsletter, or marketing postcards. Here are a few of these and the kinds of printers you might want to approach for an estimate:

Large-format signage to hang on the exterior wall of a building: If you plan to produce a huge banner, let’s say 13 feet x 17 feet, you’re probably going to need a sign shop or at least a printer with a large-format flatbed or roll-fed inkjet printer. Exterior graphics need to withstand weather (moisture) and sunlight (UV radiation) to maximize their lifespan and minimize ink fading. Special inks will be required, such as solvent inks, rather than the dyes used for interior graphics. The printer will probably produce these oversized graphics in strips, which will be sewn together to create the final image. The edges will be turned and sewn for durability, and grommets will be added for the ropes that will suspend the sign from the side of the building. Again, look for “sign shops” and “large-format graphics” in your Internet search.

Bags, t-shirts, hats, mugs, pens: These are called “novelties” or “promotional items” and are usually produced on screen printing equipment. Due to the limitations of screen printing on fabrics and ceramics, the artwork used for such items usually is simpler than for other types of printing. This means that you would create the design in only one or two PMS colors, expect coarser screens for halftones (lower screen rulings), and understand that registration of colors will not be perfect. That said, many print shops that specialize in novelties can inkjet art onto decals, which can then be applied to the surfaces of these items. Decals allow you to create and print more complex artwork.

Business forms and checks: Forms printers produce all manner of business paperwork. This might include multi-part application forms with two or three copies in bright colors, perhaps with sequential “crash” numbering. Other specialties would include checks, some printed with magnetic ink or toner (known as MICR) that can be “read” by special equipment. You might also approach such a printer for continuous forms (one long sheet of fan-folded paper with perforations between the forms). These might be NCR forms (“no carbon required”) treated with a substance that allows multiple copies to be made as you print on the first copy (like carbon paper). Start your Google search with the words “business forms.”

Labels: Whether you want to produce Crack’n Peel decals to stick on a spiral-bound notebook, or a wine bottle label, you need a specialty printer. Wine bottles, for instance, need labels that can withstand moisture and dramatic changes in temperature, without coming off the bottle or having their ink smear. Special inks and adhesives may be needed. Printers specializing in this kind of work will have the knowledge to produce labels (often with sequential numbering) for medical use, industrial applications, or any number of other fields.

Approach these printing companies with the same diligence you use for all your work. Whether you’re looking for custom bottle labels, large format printing, custom screen printing, or t-shirt printing, the same rules apply. Go beyond the estimate. Request printed samples, and discuss the project with the printer to make sure you have the right vendor for the job.

Printing Companies Specialize in Different Kinds of Work

Saturday, April 9th, 2011

A careful search for newspaper printers, book printing and publishing companies, or magazine printers will teach you a valuable lesson: not all printing companies are the same.

When you send your job to the printer, exactly what does the printer do? Another way to phrase this is what does one printer do that another cannot do? This is a question you should be asking yourself with every job. To save money buying printing, a prudent buyer requests bids from printers well equipped to produce his or her specific job. Here are a few examples:

Question: You need to print a tabloid for an event your non-profit is sponsoring. What kind of printer do you need?

Answer: Most printing companies do not print on newsprint (also known as groundwood). You need a printer with a web press specifically configured for this kind of thin, lower-quality stock. In your research, look for such terms as “groundwood,” “tabloids,” “cold-set web presses,” and “newspaper presses.” Also research the number of available colors a printer can provide and their placement within a tabloid, as well as the maximum printable image area for each page. Consider distribution as well. If you need the printed product delivered immediately, the printer should be close to your final destination (i.e., a short drive by delivery truck). This is just a start, but it will point you in the right direction.

Question: You are producing a textbook, and you want to find the optimal press. What kind of printer do you need?

Answer: Printing companies specialize in one kind, or a few kinds, of work. Their equipment list will reflect their niche, and your printer’s rep can help you understand this information. A book printer will often have a huge sheetfed press. With an oversized press sheet on a 50-inch press (or larger), you can print many more book pages at once than you can on a smaller press. The signatures that make up your book can have more pages, so fewer signatures will be needed for the same page count. Fewer signatures will require less press time, and this will be reflected in your final cost. In your research, look for “50-inch presses” or “oversized presses.”

Alternatively, some book printers will have one-color web presses, which are good for black text and simple screens. The paper they run is uncoated because non-heatset web presses do not have the ovens needed to dry heavy-coverage 4-color process ink. This is not ideal for high-quality work, but for simple books it is well suited and inexpensive.

Question: You are producing a magazine, and you want to find the optimal press. What kind of printer do you need?

Answer: Given the long press runs, tight schedules, and multiple pages of a magazine, your best bet is a periodical printer. A periodical printer thinks in terms of deadlines and is comfortable producing multiple titles for multiple clients. Usually they have a heatset web press. Unlike the non-heatset web press noted above for books, a heatset web press will allow you to print 4-color process work on a coated press sheet. Like the non-heatset press (also referred to as cold-set), the heatset press can produce the job in a much shorter time than it would take to print the same job on a sheetfed press. The quality is not quite as good, but the price is usually many thousands of dollars less.

Consider the differences between your various jobs, and the skills and equipment you will need for each. Keeping this approach in mind when choosing printing services will save you a lot of money.

Commercial Envelope Printers Can Custom Print Envelopes on Cover Stock

Tuesday, April 5th, 2011

A client recently asked me to recommend a custom envelope printer for extra-heavy envelopes. The client wanted to print envelopes on 65# cover stock and then convert them. Keep in mind that most envelopes are 20#, 24#, or 28#, much thinner than 65# cover stock.

Why would anyone want custom print envelopes like these? Because they are extremely durable and they give the impression of opulence and prosperity. In certain cases this is important, depending on the clientele receiving the envelopes.

That said, there are certain things to keep in mind when printing envelopes like these:

  1. Extra-heavy envelopes need to be printed and then converted. Converting includes the folding and gluing steps involved in turning a flat piece of printing stock into an envelope. You can’t just buy envelopes like these and then print on them. Therefore producing high-end custom envelopes of this caliber is an expensive proposition.
  2. The heaviest stock that can be converted is 8 point cover, and the envelope must be larger than 6” x 9”.
  3. If you keep the size under 6” x 9.5”, you will stay within “letter” (rather than “flat”) rate postage and save a lot of money.
  4. Remember that if you are coating the press sheet with varnish or aqueous coating to avoid scuffing the ink, you will need to knock out (i.e., not print the coating in) the area on which the address will be inkjet printed. Otherwise the inkjet pigment will not adhere to the envelopes and will smear off.
  5. Postage is based on weight (and in some cases also the distance the envelope travels). Custom envelopes made of 65# cover stock may look beautiful, but they will cost a premium to mail since they are heavy, even before you insert the brochures or other contents.
  6. If you want to address these envelopes in your office laser printer, you’re probably out of luck. Most small laser printers will not accept such a thick substrate without jamming. Therefore, you will need to print address labels on peel and stick paper and then hand-affix the labels to the envelopes. This can take time if your mailings are large.

For aesthetic reasons and durability, there are good reasons to print and convert envelopes on 65# cover stock. But it behooves you to consider the costs involved and perhaps even give an unprinted sample to your postal representative to gauge the potential postage costs and to make sure all US Postal Service requirements for size, thickness, etc., have been met. Dedicated custom envelope printers, companies that focus exclusively on how to print envelopes, can be invaluable resources in producing such a job.

Printing Bid Accuracy Dependent On Complete Printing Job Specs

Sunday, April 3rd, 2011

Whether you are working with catalog printing companies, brochure printers, book printers, or business card printing services, all jobs have one thing in common: the job specification sheet.

Beyond the actual print job files themselves, the printing specification sheet is one of the most important documents to send to your printer (both for the estimate and along with the final job). Think of it as a contract between you and your supplier. It lists all expectations for both you and your vendor, from pricing and scheduling to submission of art files, prepress, proofing, printing, finishing, delivery and mailing.

Here are three items it’s easy to forget when providing a print job specification sheet. There are myriad other items to note, but these illustrate job components that are easily miscommunicated or not communicated at all. Overlooking them can significantly increase the overall price of the job:


Does the ink on your brochure, large-format print, print catalog, or other job extend off the page? If so, a larger press sheet size may be needed, and in some cases the larger sheet may require a larger press. Printing press costs are based on an hourly rate for each piece of equipment (and its operators). A larger press carries a higher hourly cost. If you forget to note that a job will bleed (and then actually submit a job with bleeds at press time), the price may be the same or it may be considerably higher than you had expected.


Your job may be bulk packed in cartons, in bumper-end mailers within cartons (for later mailing directly to customers), or in any number of other ways. Maybe you need the job shrink-wrapped in 100’s, or put in cartons with a slip sheet between each group of 100 items.

All of these operations require labor and materials costs, and this will be reflected in the total bill. If you want to save money, request the simpler operations. For instance, if you’re printing books, consider not shrink-wrapping them. Or maybe skip the bumper-end mailers and just carton-pack the books. Regardless, you need to describe all packaging operations on your specification sheet.


When do you expect to submit the final files? How will you submit them (as native InDesign files or press-ready PDF’s)? Work backward from when you will need the job to enter the mailstream. Consider all operations: prepress, proofing, printing, binding, packaging, delivery of samples, delivery to the mailhouse (plus all mailshop activities such as mail list maintenance, address inkjetting, etc.).

How long will you need for your responsibilities (proofing the job, for instance)? Will you need a hard-copy proof, or will a PDF proof suffice? Ask the printer how long he will need for each of his responsibilities, and construct a day-by-day print production schedule including all operations. When you send the job to press, include the schedule, the list of job specifications, and the prices quoted for all aspects of the job. If you need a shorter schedule, this could easily raise the price of the job.

This is probably only a tenth of the items you will need to include on your specification sheet, but attention to these details will save you money. Make it a professional challenge to craft a flexible specification sheet that can be altered to reflect each type of job you produce. Update it regularly as you learn more and produce more jobs. This is a good investment of your time when you’re communicating with any and all custom printing companies.


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