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Printing Industry Exchange ( is pleased to have Steven Waxman writing and managing the Printing Industry Blog. As a printing consultant, Steven teaches corporations how to save money buying printing, brokers printing services, and teaches prepress techniques. Steven has been in the printing industry for thirty-three years working as a writer, editor, print buyer, photographer, graphic designer, art director, and production manager.

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Archive for the ‘Paper and finishing’ Category

Book Printing: Two More Paper Specifications to Know

Monday, June 14th, 2021

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A single print book started my education in commercial printing (Getting It Printed by Mark Beach and Eric Kenly). If you read this book you will learn far more than you thought possible about paper—everything from the difference between whiteness and brightness to how paper is made to the difference between long- and short-grain paper stocks. It may make your head hurt, but it will vastly improve your design skills and print negotiating skills. It did for me. This used to be an area in which my knowledge was lacking.

Two paper qualities that aren’t always addressed along with whiteness, brightness, surface formation, and caliper are “bulk” and paper sheet sizes as they relate to paper weight and thickness. You may find these useful to understand.

Caliper vs. Bulk

First the easy and short one: bulk vs. caliper. When you design a print book, you may choose to specify the cover stock as 10pt. C1S. This means that when you use a micrometer, it will show the thickness of the paper to be 10 points (.138009”). Personally, I’ve usually specified either 10pt. or 12pt. stock for 6” x 9” perfect-bound books I have designed. This is a good starting point. You may want to get paper samples from your book printer before you make your decision. You may even want to choose a thicker paper stock for larger-format books.

As an addendum, this is what the C1S means: “coated one side.” For a print book cover, that means the inside front and back covers will have the same uncoated surface as the (often) uncoated paper used for the text. If your text pages are coated, however, you’d want to look for C2S (coated two side) alternatives (such as regular 65#, 80#, or 100# cover stock).

Both 10pt. and 12pt. stocks are specified in absolute measurements, unlike 60# text (used for the interior of the print book). When you choose a 60# text stock, that specification reflects the weight of 500 sheets of 25” x 38” paper. This size (which may be only one option for the sheet size a printer may buy) is called the “basic size” for that particular paper, and the 60# specification is the “basis weight.” That gives a consistent measure to all paper.

In contrast, 65# cover stock reflects the weight of 500 sheets of the thicker cover stock. The reason this makes sense is that the basic size of cover paper is smaller (20” x 26”), so compared to 500 sheets of text paper, it will be significantly thicker (even though it still weighs 65#).

This thickness (on an absolute level) is called “caliper” (as noted before, regarding 10pt. and 12pt. cover stock).

In contrast, “bulk” refers to the relative comparison of paper weight to paper thickness, and this can vary from paper to paper. And the way you can compare one sheet to another is through the “ppi” specification noted on your custom printing contract. PPI means pages per inch. One text paper might have a bulk of 350 ppi, while another may have a bulk of 400 ppi. The first has a higher bulk (fewer pages for the same one-inch measurement). You can determine the thickness of a print book text block by dividing the page count by the ppi (500 pages divided by 400 ppi would be a 1.25” text block, for instance).

There are benefits to selecting a paper with a higher bulk. There is less chance for show through (seeing ink printed on the opposite side of a book page when you’re reading). (Paper thickness and opacity reduce show-through.) Also, a thicker page (your fingers will know the difference) can make a print book feel more substantial.

One of my print brokering clients (a husband and wife publishing team), for instance, used to print all of their book text blocks on 55# Sebago Antique, an uncoated paper with a higher bulk than most 60# white offset press papers. It was cheaper, but it made the pages feel more weighty because of the higher bulk.

In contrast, it’s important to keep this in mind when you’re specifying a coated paper for the text of a print book. Your inclination might be to select a 60# white coated sheet, but since coated sheets usually have a lower bulk than the 60# white offset you might have otherwise chosen, it might be prudent to upgrade the text paper to a 70# gloss coated sheet.

Again, ask your printer about this, and review printed sheets of all paper weights you’re considering. Look for show-through. Check book pages printed on both sides of the paper, and make sure you can’t see halftones and area screens or solids on the back when you’re looking at the front of the paper.

For all of this to make sense, you might want to imagine a sponge. Initially it has a certain thickness, but if you squeeze it (equally and completely flat, perhaps with a flower press used for drying flowers), the sponge will get thinner without its weight changing. It will still weigh the same amount that it did before you compressed the sponge. In a similar vein, paper fibers are squeezed together to a greater or lesser extent based on the “calendering” process (running the paper through a series of heated metal rollers during the papermaking process).

Calendering ensures a smooth, hard, glossy paper surface, and this allows commercial printing ink to sit up on the surface of the paper (called “holdout”). A paper with good holdout keeps ink from seeping into the paper fibers and makes the colors of the ink appear crisper, brighter, cleaner. Newsprint has minimal holdout. A gloss coated press sheet has superior holdout. However, the calendering process makes the paper feel thinner for the same weight (i.e., its bulk), and you may want the paper to not feel flimsy, so you may choose to print your book text on a 70# white gloss coated paper instead of a 60# white gloss coated sheet.

Paper Sheet Sizes

So now you see how all of this is somewhat of a moving target. Cover papers in pounds, text papers in pounds, cover papers in points. Plus the different sheet sizes from which these measurements of 500 sheets (or a ream) are taken.

But there are a few easy ways to compare paper weights. The first rule of thumb is that you may want to pair (like a wine and a food) a 100# cover sheet with a 100# or 80# text sheet for the interior of a book (let’s say an annual report). This is a good starting point, but you may want to get a paper dummy (an unprinted sample of the bound paper annual report made by the paper mill) to see how it feels. Again, your fingers will know. Does it feel substantial? Does it feel flimsy?

Another good way to compare paper weights is to search online for a paper weight comparison chart. These charts align comparable weights of papers with different basic sizes (cover, as noted before, is weighed at 20” x 26”; text is weighed at 25” x 38”; index has a different size altogether: 25.5” x 30.5”; bond is 17” x 22”). The paper charts also list the absolute thickness (or caliper, like the 10pt. or 12pt. stock noted above) of each paper weight.

What these charts do is show you how one paper will feel compared to another. However, as noted above, the bulk of comparable-weight papers can vary, so it behooves you to review the paper books and samples your book printer provides to make sure you like the bulk of a particular paper.

Another Thing Paper Charts Will Teach You

Text paper may be weighed at 25” x 38” to yield the 60# paper weight of 500 sheets, but your printer may have presses that are different sizes from other printers’ presses, so he may want a different sized sheet. That’s fine. Depending on what’s available, for instance, he may order 28” x 40” paper. This may still be 60# text when 500 sheets of 25” x 38” standard stock are weighed, but the stack of press sheets may fit the press better.

There are a lot of options beyond the standard. And you will notice, if you look closely, that the sizes are usually based on some multiple of 8.5” x 11” (in the United States, that is; elsewhere the standard would be metric). For instance, on a 25” x 38” sheet of paper, you can get four pages across and two down on either side of the sheet. That’s eight pages per side or a full 16-page press signature when folded. (Here’s the math: 4 x 8.5” = 34” plus room for the gripper and printer’s marks and perhaps bleeds. The other dimension would be 2 x 11” = 22” plus room for any bleeds or printer’s marks.) And the reason this is relevant is that your goal in print buying is to use as much of the press sheet as possible and print as large a press signature (in terms of the number of pages) as possible—without waste. Any paper that gets trimmed off and thrown in the trash still gets billed to you. Efficiency is paramount.

So the takeaway is that you might want to get a copy of Getting It Printed (or a similar printing textbook), study all of this information on paper sizes, paper caliper, and bulk, and discuss matters with your book printer. Get samples, too. And go on a press tour. Even consider going on a tour of a papermaking mill. The more you know, the more effective you will be in designing your print books and in buying commercial printing.

Commercial Printing: Ways to Save on Paper Costs

Monday, June 15th, 2020

So, you’ve completed the design of your brochure, print book, poster, or whatever other offset or digital print project you’re working on, and it’s time to choose paper to print it on. What’s to choose? It’s just paper, right?

Not so.

If you’re a graphic designer, you’re probably well aware of the nuances of paper specification, everything from the texture to the opacity to the whiteness vs. brightness of the paper. Is it coated? Or should it be uncoated, and what does this imply about the brand values of your company? Many designers even have preferred brands of paper and specify these directly to their paper merchants, asking the paper merchants to coordinate paper purchases with the mills and the offset or digital commercial printing suppliers.

Some of this attention to detail and paper selection can add up financially, particularly if paper costs are a large portion of the overall commercial printing budget. (For example, selecting an expensive paper for a perfect-bound print book with a page count of 512 pages and a press run of 60,000 copies can really drive up the overall manufacturing cost of the book.)

What can you do to save money?

Select Paper Based on Its Specifications Rather Than Its Name Brand

Printers and paper merchants (who negotiate directly with the paper mills and have a vast knowledge of paper) can often get good deals on commercial printing stock. In addition, most printers have “house sheets” within various categories of paper. That is, they may have an uncoated stock like Cougar or Lynx that they buy in bulk and use for the majority of their perfect-bound print books. The printer’s house sheet might be just fine for your needs, but if you insist on another brand, like Finch Fine stock, you may wind up paying hundreds or thousands of dollars more.

The way around this is to learn the meaning of the paper characteristics and then ask the printer or paper merchant for a particular paper based not on the brand but on the specifications. A few paper specs to research online are:

  1. Whiteness (for example, blue white or solar white vs. warm white or cream). Whiteness pertains to the paper’s ability to reflect all colors of light (i.e., a pure white), as opposed to the amount of light it reflects.
  2. Brightness (specified in terms such as “premium,” #1, #2, etc.). This specification notes the amount of light (rather than the color of light, or its whiteness) the paper reflects. A premium sheet is brighter than a #1 sheet. But it’s not always necessary to print on a bright paper stock. For instance, for a trade magazine or a catalog, you might even choose a much lower grade (perhaps a #4 sheet or a #5 groundwood sheet). It wouldn’t be as bright, and you wouldn’t specify a #4 sheet for an annual report, but for a mechanic’s parts catalog, for instance, it might be ideal—and competitively priced, particularly when you’re printing a lot of catalogs.
  3. Coated vs. uncoated. A premium uncoated sheet might well cost more than a lower quality coated sheet (counter-intuitively), but usually coated paper costs more than uncoated paper. Discuss this with your printer or paper merchant. Decide what you really need and what is appropriate for your printed product. (Perhaps an uncoated sheet would send more of an Earth-friendly message about your company.)
  4. Surface texture. A matte sheet might be smooth enough for your needs. You may not need a dull sheet. On the other hand (if you’re specifying an uncoated paper), you might in fact want to pay a premium for a textured, uncoated sheet if you’re sending out an invitation to a fancy office gathering.
  5. Paper weight (related to paper thickness or caliper). Research customary weights for various projects. For instance, a corporate promotional booklet might go well on a 100# cover and 100# text combination (for the cover and book interior). In contrast, you might specify 50# or 60# text stock for the interior of a perfect-bound book, and if you don’t need to print on the inside front and back covers, you might choose a 10pt. C1S (coated one side) stock for the cover.
  6. Opacity. This is the light blocking power of a press sheet. Choosing a 60# opaque sheet for a perfect-bound book with a lot of photos will make it less likely that you will see the photo on the back of the page when you’re reading the front of the page. A regular 60# offset sheet wouldn’t be quite as opaque. Opacity is the quality of paper that minimizes what is known as “show through.”

So here’s what you can do with this information. Start with printed samples you like on specific papers you like. Then discuss the variables noted above with your printer and paper merchant (if you have a relationship with a paper merchant). Ask the printer for his suggestions based on what he has on the pressroom floor, what house sheets he buys, and what brands might be economical.

Or, if you’re in a pinch, choose paper from a paper merchant’s swatch books and then note on the specification sheet you compose for your printer that you would be interested in “suggested paper substitutions.” Another way to phrase this on the printing specification sheet is to say “such and such a paper, or comparable.”

Design Economically to Save Paper

This involves a number of considerations. First of all, ask your book printer about the best size for your particular custom printing project, based on the size of the presses he has on the pressroom floor. For example, you might be able to get a 16-page press signature (8 pages on each size) on his press with room for printer’s marks, the printing press gripper (which grabs the press sheet and moves it through the press), and even bleeds if you reduce its size from a 6” x 9” format to a 5.5” x 8.5” format. This change in size might allow for larger press signatures (and therefore fewer press runs) as well as less paper waste.

Probably no one will see the difference, and you will save money. Or, you could forego the bleeds (or confirm with your printer whether or not the bleeds will increase the price by requiring a larger press sheet size and therefore a larger offset press).

Reduce Paper Weight and Quality

Another thing you can do to save money on paper is reduce the paper weight of the project (as noted above). Or you can print on an uncoated sheet (as noted above, with all other things being equal, coated paper often costs more than uncoated). For instance, if you had been considering printing a book on a 70# gloss coated text paper, you might instead decide to print it on a 60# uncoated sheet. Lighter weight papers cost less than heavier weight papers.

As noted above, paper comes in various levels of quality, usually dependent on the brightness of the press sheet. You could save a lot of money by stepping down from a premium sheet to a number #1 or #2 paper. In fact, these days some #2 papers are indistinguishable (to the naked eye) from higher grade papers.

Address Publications-Management Issues

If you’re thoughtful in your approach, how you manage the overall press run can save you money on paper costs.

For example, you could:

  1. Make PDFs of the job available online and therefore reduce the total number of printed copies needed.
  2. Reduce acceptable overruns (usually up to 10 percent overs are acceptable). Negotiate this with your printer.
  3. Clean up all mail lists and be more selective in bulk distribution. Fewer names equal fewer copies going to more precise and accurate addresses. Think about where you make your print product available in bulk as well. Do you need to deliver that big a stack of catalogs to the neighborhood stores?
  4. Print your publication less often. If you combine such a reduction in publishing frequency with an increase in online marketing and editorial content, you can still retain your customers’ interest and loyalty. If you research this suggestion online, look for “multi-channel marketing.”
  5. Print fewer pages. Granted, this requires editing and writing discipline and design/layout acumen, but it can save a lot of money. Reducing a periodical by even four pages and multiplying this by (perhaps) 50,000 copies will save a lot of paper. Fewer pages will cost less to print (sometimes resulting in even fewer press runs for the same product) and will require less paper.

The Take-Away

Here are some suggestions:

  1. Go to school on paper. Learn as much as you can.
  2. Discuss your paper needs for your various projects with your printer.
  3. Develop a relationship with a paper merchant. Consider attending a paper mill tour to see exactly how paper is made.
  4. Collect paper swatch books. But keep them current. It can be frustrating to pick the perfect paper and then learn that it has been discontinued. (Check the dates on the back of the paper books.)
  5. Collect a swipe file of printed products you like because of their paper qualities as well as their design.

Custom Printing: Design Your Job with Paper in Mind

Thursday, May 21st, 2020

Paper is a resource. In addition to coming (mostly) from trees and therefore being worthy of preservation, paper as a significant materials cost of commercial printing bears consideration. Paper is expensive. Don’t waste it. In fact, it is sometimes a rather large portion of the overall cost of your print job.

For example, if you’re printing 100,000 copies of a 352-page perfect-bound textbook, two things you should seriously consider–and discuss with your printer–are the cost of paper and the cost of shipping (in addition to costing money in large-page-count, long-press-run projects, paper is heavy and costs a lot to transport).

So how do you save money buying paper for your custom printing job?

I’ve addressed this in prior print blogs, but I just came upon a few more suggestions in Mark Beach’s and Eric Kenly’s Getting It Printed, my all-time favorite book on commercial printing. In no particular order, here are some suggestions:

Consider the Purpose of the Job

If you are mailing out an invitation to a fundraising gala dinner, the paper has to be perfect. However, if you’re printing an in-house newsletter for your employees, you don’t necessarily need the finest printing stock.

This isn’t as much about the particular paper you choose as it is about your mindset. Getting It Printed even suggests asking your printer what kind of extra paper he has in his inventory, perhaps partial reams of paper that may not exactly match but that might be perfectly adequate for an in-house newsletter.

I once did this for a client who needed hang-tags for her clothing designs. She was self-employed, and every dollar counted. I did what Getting It Printed suggested, but I took it a step further. I found waste paper (the last few unused sheets from a few reams in my printer’s inventory) that had the same feel but that came in different colors: as I recall, a pink, a green, and a brown. Just by digging in the printer’s paper stacks among paper selections too small for a full job, I gave my client a rainbow of colors for her hang-tags and business cards.

Discuss these options with your printer. Sometimes even a slight difference in color or surface texture will be irrelevant to the audience for your print product but could save you some money.

Group Your Jobs

When I was an art director/production manager, I used to get an annual list of over 100 publications that had to be designed and printed within the following year. (I didn’t take the following advice, but I think you should consider it.) Getting It Printed suggests that in such a situation you talk with your printer (or maybe a few printers) about grouping your jobs.

The list I received when I was an art director included a number of textbooks, a number of newsletters, a number of invitations—the list goes on—each year. There really was only a short list of different kinds of jobs we designed and printed. What would have saved us money at the time would have been to group these publications, by type, and request bids for a number of them.

Getting It Printed suggests this. For instance, we could have compiled specs for five different newsletters produced on the same commercial printing stock, along with any additional printing specs, and spread these over twelve months within a predetermined schedule.

The good news is that printers in such a situation can often provide an overall discount for additional, regular work, and can sometimes even provide a discount on the particular paper stock based on a larger commitment over a longer time. You can presumably negotiate terms that would involve your only paying upon completion of each job.

The bad news is that this requires foresight and forethought. Back when I was an art director, everything was always a rush, so I never quite got around to doing what I’m suggesting. Learn from my mistake.

Paper Size and Job Trim Size

The elusive goal of paper management is to eliminate waste entirely. Although this will never happen, it will save paper (and therefore save you money) to consider the size of the poster, flyer, or book page for the job you’re designing. This is not just on an individual page-size level, but also in terms of how many copies you can get on a press sheet.

This gets a bit complicated when we’re discussing press signatures, so we’ll start with short jobs.

Let’s say you’re printing a pocket folder (before it’s converted from a flat press sheet into an actual folder). When you take apart last year’s model, you’ll see that the pockets have glue tabs and other little flaps and protrusions that turn an unassembled pocket folder into a much larger flat item on a press sheet.

If your printer can give you an idea of the press sheet size (based on the size of the press he will be using), then you may see that you can get (for example) two of these flat, unfolded pocket folders on one press sheet (including all the tabs and flaps that will need to be folded and glued).

The ideal situation is that when you lay out two of these folders on a press sheet (which is called imposition, and which is a task your commercial printing vendor will handle), there will only be enough room for bleeds, printer’s bars (color targets and such), and the gripper margin (the gripper pulls the press sheet through the press)–and nothing else. No waste. That is ideal. If you work with your printer to determine the best press, the best press sheet (both its size and its availability on the market), and the best size for the flat printed job, you can often minimize paper waste. And this may lead to a paper cost savings.

Press Signatures

All of this becomes a bit more complex when you’re producing multiple-press-signature work. For instance, if you’re printing a 32-page saddle-stitched booklet, presumably this will be composed of two 16-page press signatures, each with eight pages on each side of the press sheet.

Each press signature will constitute one press run. Each signature (eight pages on each side of the sheet) will fit on the press sheet ideally with no waste. That is, with nothing but the press bleeds, printer’s bars and color targets, and gripper margin. For this to happen, the size of each booklet page has to be determined and each page has to be positioned on the press sheet.

For instance, if your book is 8.5” x 11” in format, and you have four pages across by two pages down on each side of the sheet (eight pages, four above, four below—and the same number on the back of the sheet), you need at least 34” across (4 x 8.5” across the width of the press sheet) and 22” down (2 x 11” along the length or depth of the press sheet). Plus, you need room for the gripper margin, printer’s color bars, bleeds, etc. If your printer can run a 25” x 38” press sheet through his press (very likely), you’re golden. You have almost no waste.

Talk with your printer. Get these specifications and match them to your preferred book page size, and see whether everything fits on the press sheet. If not, ask your book printer by how much you need to reduce your page size (sometimes only slightly).

Granted, this assumes a 16-page signature. Some book signatures are four pages, some eight, some even 32 pages. Sometimes your printer will even print two copies of the same (often a four-page or eight-page) signature on a press sheet. But this, at least, is a starting point for discussion with your printer. It’s also useful for you to start considering press sizes and printing paper sizes, as well as the trim sizes of the publications you design and print. In the long run, this expanded awareness will save you money.

Consider the Post Office

With the preceding information in mind, you might be inclined to change the size of your publications. For instance, you might want to make a fold-up self-mailer larger, since larger pieces often stand out more dramatically in the recipient’s mailbox.

But be aware of the ramifications. The “wow factor” of a large printed piece is only one criterion for the success of the job.

Unless you have a business mail template from the Post Office, by lengthening one dimension of your fold-up self-mailer, you might inadvertently change the ratio of length to height and unknowingly make the job unmailable. Or it might require a postage surcharge. It might look great, but in the process of redesigning the self-mailer, you might have unknowingly made the overall job (printing and mailing) more expensive, even if you reduced paper waste by using more space on the press sheet.

Or, if your job will go out in an envelope (for a job that’s not a self-mailer), your (slightly larger than usual) printed marketing piece might not fit in a standard envelope. You might need a custom envelope (which will cost more), and the size difference might cause you to incur a Postal Service surcharge.

What can you do to avoid making these mistakes? Get a business mail template and booklet from your Post Office, and learn everything you can about aspect ratios (length to width), size requirements, paper weights, how to keep your mail piece machinable and automatable, and how to reap the greatest postal discounts. In fact, it wouldn’t hurt to find a business mail specialist at a local Post Office and give her/him your mock-ups for feedback. Then you can approach your printer, as noted above, regarding presses, paper sizes, and waste from a more knowledgeable position.

Book Printing: Thoughts on Choosing Printing Paper

Saturday, March 24th, 2018

I found a perfect-bound mythology book in the thrift store this week that I had last read and loved in 1981, so I bought it for a dollar. But what struck me even more than the surprise of finding it again was the publication date (1976) and the fact that the cover, cover coating, and interior paper showed absolutely no sign of age. None.

Unlike many other print books I had seen recently in the thrift stores, both the text stock and the cover stock of this book showed none of the yellowing around the edges that I was used to seeing in much more recently printed books. All of the photos on the crisp uncoated stock were pristine and exactly as I had remembered them from my first reading of the book thirty-six years ago.

This brought to mind a few thoughts about paper.

First of all, reading a book is a tactile experience, and for me the thickness and feel of the paper and gloss cover coating as well as the roughness of the paper and even the thickness of the book were relevant to my overall reading experience. None of these qualities can be replicated on an e-reader.

My next thought was that certain qualities in the paper made this print book look as good as the day it had been published. Since there was no discoloration or yellowing, I made an educated guess that alkaline paper had been used. This is considered to be of archival quality, in contrast to other books I have from the 1970s that are now yellow and brittle due to the highly acidic content of their text paper. These are not considered to be of archival quality.

When you compare these two paperbacks to some of the hardcover books printed and bound in the late 1800s, it is interesting to see that the older print books in many cases seem to be in much better shape than the paperbacks from the 1970s. Again, this has to do with the quality of the materials used.

Paper is not cheap, and alkaline paper is often more expensive than acidic paper, so the paperbacks I had collected in the 1970s were probably meant to be read and then discarded, or at least not kept for the ensuing forty years. This is fine. I paid very little for them.

How Does This Relate to Contemporary Book Printing?

In recent years, a large percentage of books have migrated from hard-cover and paperback format to electronic media only, as files for e-reader devices. This has been leveling off or decreasing recently. People are not giving up on print books. But in many cases publishers are choosing a print format to highlight particular print qualities not available in electronic media. Many of these involve properties of printing paper that will improve the tactile experience of book-reading. Therefore, it behooves designers and print buyers to learn a bit about commercial printing paper.

Here’s a starting point.

On another trip to the thrift store I found a paper handbook from the 1980s. It was specifically written for those who sell or buy paper. I’m sure contemporary paper mills, printers, and paper merchants can provide similar books. All you have to do is ask. Here are some of the subjects the book addresses.

Paper Properties

These include “whiteness, brightness, color, surface texture, finish, opacity, stiffness, flexibility, grain, and gloss” (Walden’s Handbook for Paper Salespeople & Buyers of Printing Paper, Second Edition). These are just the visual properties. More tactile qualities include thickness, bulk, resistance to tearing, smoothness, opacity, ink receptivity…. The list goes on and on.

If you were to boil down this list into a few key concepts, they might be:

  1. The thickness and stiffness of the paper as it feels in your hand (and the appropriateness of the thickness for the product you’re printing).
  2. The color of the paper (whether it has a bluish-white or yellowish-white tone, or whether it has a more intense color altogether like a dark green tinted sheet used for a holiday invitation and printed with silver ink).
  3. The quality of the paper, or its formation (its consistency across the sheet when held up to the light), since an even paper formation allows for evenly printed halftones and text.
  4. Whether the paper is coated or uncoated, and if coated whether it has a gloss or dull finish.
  5. The runnability of the paper. That is, does the paper possess those qualities (such as dimensional stability) that will make it run through a commercial printing press easily without causing problems. A related concept would be ink receptivity, or whether the paper absorbs ink evenly into the paper (if uncoated) or whether the ink sits up on top of the paper surface (if coated).

The Paper-Making Process

A paper handbook such as this will also explain the process of making paper, from the essentially liquid form in which it starts to the final cut sheets that are ready to load into the commercial printing press.

You will also find descriptions of paper flaws to look for (such as wavy edges) or the propensity of a paper for picking (having pinpricks of the paper—along with the ink–come off during the printing process). Dimensionally unstable paper is another flaw to avoid, as is paper that is not trimmed squarely.

Paper Tests

The Walden Handbook also describes a number of tests to ensure the quality of the paper, such as the burst test and tensile strength test, which relate to a paper’s propensity for tearing.

In addition, the paper handbook describes opacity testing (related to the light-stopping power of a particular paper). This paper property is particularly useful if you have a photo on one side of a sheet of paper and text on the other. Using an opaque sheet will ensure that you won’t see the photo on the back of the paper when you’re reading the text on the front of the sheet.

Charts Describing Paper Options

A paper handbook such as this will also discuss (and even include drawings of) formats for envelopes. (You can get the same information from the US Post Office.) In addition, it will include charts showing the relative thickness of different kinds of paper (text stock weights compared to cover stock weights, for instance). This is useful in converting from one type of paper to another. Usually, such a chart will also show the “basic size” to which these “basis weights” refer.

Information for the Printer

Such a paper book will also list the standard dimensions of cut sheets of commercial printing stock as well as useful information for printers regarding storage and conditioning of paper prior to printing. This section will include information on skid packing of paper, characteristics of paper rolls, and how cut sheets of printing paper will arrive in cartons.

All of this information may make your head swim. It’s a bit like reading a dictionary. However, over time you will start to recognize certain paper qualities, and the more your knowledge grows, the more precise you can be in designing printed products that benefit from different paper choices. You will also be better able to discuss these paper properties and potential pitfalls with your printer or you paper merchant.

Custom Printing: The Printing Substrate Changes the Ink Color

Wednesday, October 28th, 2015

The more I study the various visual arts, the more similarities I see between and among them.

My fiancee bought some hair coloring today, and noted that the final color will depend on the original hair color of the person using the product. She had chosen a bright auburn shade, and on the back of the package I saw three slightly different final colors based on whether the original hair had been light to medium blonde, dark blonde to light brown, or medium to dark brown.

Presumably, the purpose of such an explanation was to tell the user what to expect. But to me it brought to mind the differences in color output when offset custom printing (or digitally printing) on a white sheet, beige sheet, or much darker sheet. The substrate always affects the color of the printed ink.

My fiancee went on to explain how eyelash coloration works the same way. The color you apply with a brush will look different on women with different original eye lash colors.

How Does This Apply to Commercial Printing?

Here are some thoughts pertaining to a number of different custom printing situations and technologies:

  1. When you have chosen an off-white press sheet onto which you will print your four-color process job, remember that process inks are transparent. If your photos include faces, the flesh color will be affected by the underlying paper, and the overall effect may be yellower than you would like. To compensate for this you can have the printer add a layer of opaque white beneath the process colors. (This will add to your overall cost, of course.) I have also seen this done with a metallic silver ink as a base and with opaque white actually mixed in with the process colors.
  2. Another approach if you’ve chosen a cream stock and you want to print white lettering on the paper is to use white foil rather than ink. Foil will completely retain its surface consistency (unlike ink) because it will not seep into the paper. After all, the white foil is attached to the surface of the paper with heat and pressure. If you choose this option, you will need to pay extra for the metal die used to cut the white foil.
  3. If you’re printing on a black t-shirt, the underprinting of white ink will make a huge difference in the final color. In this case the opaque white will provide a consistent, light background for any subsequent colors you may add.
  4. Printing on clear acetate will benefit from the same approach. Let’s say you’re producing a large-format section of a movie standee, and you want a transparency effect. Printing the inkjet inks or custom screen printing inks directly on the clear acetate will dull down the colors significantly, but laying down a background of opaque white will provide a bright background which will reflect back to the viewer the light that travels through the transparent process colors. The viewer’s eye will interpret this as increased vibrancy within the inks.
  5. You should know that large format inkjet presses (both the flatbed variety and also the roll-fed presses) will usually have an additional ink reservoir for an opaque white ink. In addition, the inkjet presses have been designed to lay down the white background precisely positioned under the color overprinting. Therefore, this technology makes printing on either a colored background or a transparent background a viable, attractive option.

What About Proofing Your Print Job?

If you’re printing process colors over a colored background, then visualizing the final outcome will be a challenge. Your computer monitor will display color on a white background. Of course you can add a tint to the background of your job to match the paper, but this might not give you a completely accurate view (remember to remove the tint screen before printing).

What I’ve always done is ask the printer or paper merchant for printed samples that match my stated goals for the substrates and inks. It’s easier to communicate using a physical printed product. In addition, if the printer has produced a job you really like, you can always ask for help in preparing the art files to ensure that your job will be as successful as the one your commercial printing vendor just produced.

Another approach you might find helpful is to inkjet print a proof on the paper you have chosen for the final job. This is particularly useful if you’re printing process colors on a cream substrate. While not 100 percent accurate, this will at least give you a better idea than a screen view of how the final job will look.

If you’re flush with cash and your product needs to be perfect, you can always request a press proof (a few copies produced on a small press). However, this is an extremely expensive option since you’re really printing the project twice (once for the proof and once for the final job).

Commercial Printing: A Few Identity-Package Paper Tips

Sunday, March 15th, 2015

A print brokering client of mine just landed a new account. The client is global in its reach, which is particularly exciting. Now my client’s client needs an identity package to project its image around the world.

The Specifications for the Identity Package

My client came to me with four items to print initially: letterhead, envelopes, business cards, and a note card with an A-7 envelope. She wanted 500 copies of each item (with 500 copies of four names for the business cards) just to get the identity package moving.

After receiving my client’s email, my initial goal was to flesh out the specifications for the custom printing supplier, so he could provide an estimate. For the business cards, my client specified “heavy matte stock” in her email. She said she thought the note cards could be slightly different, since they would be sent out individually, probably without a business card, letterhead, or #10 envelope. She wanted to consider a textured sheet for the note cards, perhaps one with a linen finish.

My Initial Contact with the Printer

I started the discussion with the commercial printing vendor by focusing on the paper for the four print jobs. It was pretty much a given that for a 500-copy press run, the best custom printing technology would be digital. All jobs were to print in 4-color process inks. Therefore, I had approached a printer with an HP Indigo digital press. I felt this press equipment would do the best job of showcasing my client’s client’s new professional image, at an economical price.

Nevertheless, I wanted to make sure both the paper and the toner would be durable. These were my concerns:

  1. I wanted to make sure that the toner would adhere evenly to the linen sheet. Since a linen texture has an uneven surface (hills and valleys, for the warp and woof of the linen pattern), I wanted to make sure the layer of toner would not have white spots where the toner did not adhere to the paper. The printer assured me that his suggested paper options, Neenah Classic Crest and Classic Linen, were both certified for the HP Indigo.
  2. I also wanted to make sure that my client’s client could run the letterhead or envelopes through a laser printer (for text imprinting, after the 4-color digital printing of the logo and address). Would an additional paper coating be needed, or would there be a risk of the toner particles’ melting in the heat of a laser printer?

The Overall Look of the Identity Package Items

My client was very precise, noting that she wanted a bright white press sheet. She also didn’t want to buy the most expensive paper for the job. She wanted to contain her client’s costs. This is what I found out from the printer:

  1. The Neenah Classic Crest and Classic Linen paper lines are not expensive sheets. Compared to other stationery papers (those provided in weights and finishes appropriate for a coordinated set of business cards, letterhead, and envelopes), they are quite affordable.
  2. I also wanted to confirm that the commercial printing supplier would not need to buy an entire carton of paper for this job (some papers have minimums; you need to buy the minimum order no matter how little paper you use). Since the jobs are small (500 copies of the letterhead, #10 envelopes, and note cards; plus 500 copies of each of four names for the business cards), this might have been an issue. The printer assured me it was not.
  3. For such a short run, I believed that the paper component of the job would be only a minimal amount of the total cost, no matter which paper was chosen. The printer assured me that this was true.

A Coordinated Look for the Identity Package

The reason I wanted to specify all paper from one dedicated stationery vendor was that I wanted to present a unified look for the new company’s identity materials. The Neenah paper lines included the multiple paper weights needed for all of the corporate identity elements (letterhead, business cards, and stationery), but it also provided the linen finish my client wanted for the note cards and A7 envelopes. My client felt the linen paper for the note cards would showcase the “hatched lines” of the logo, and I was confident that the paper’s brightness, whiteness, and surface formation would be consistent enough in both the Neenah Classic Crest and Classic Linen lines to still look like they were created for the same business firm.

Choosing Paper Weights for All Items

All that was left was to determine the weight of the paper. My client wanted a heavier than usual business card. The printer suggested a 120# cover stock (since 80# cover stock has often been the norm for business cards). This would give an appealing stiffness and snap to the card.

My client had specified 28# #10 envelopes. Usually 24# is the norm. Given the heavier than usual paper stock for the envelopes, I suggested a 70# (rather than 60#) text paper for the letterhead, again to give a sense of solidity and opulence to the client’s new business.

Finally, for the note cards the printer suggested a 100# cover stock. He felt this would be adequate. The cards didn’t need to be any thicker. These flat note cards would have no embossed panel around the edges. They would be flat, modern, and simple in design.

The printer felt all of this would provide a unified look for the new business and that the Indigo would present the best possible printed image (for the price) for the short-run jobs. My client agreed. Now, all we need to do is wait for pricing.

What You Can Learn from This Case Study

All of the specifications in this sample identity package bear close review and consideration. Paper weight, surface texture, paper color and brightness—even before ink or toner hit the surface of the paper—all either promote or damage an image (yours and your client’s). Make sure your paper choices are congruent. The best way to do this is to choose paper for all elements of an identity package from a paper supplier such as Neenah. Crane and Strathmore are two more lines to investigate. And always involve your custom printing supplier in the decisions regarding paper runnability, availability, and cost.

Custom Printing: A Case Study on Printing Paper

Friday, January 2nd, 2015

A print brokering client of mine is producing a book. It will be 5.5” x 8.5” and perfect bound with French flaps. This client runs a small publishing house. Therefore, to make this print book consistent with others in my client’s series, I have specified Sebago IV 55# Antique finish, blue-white for the main text of the book.

For the eight-page insert of photos that will appear in the middle of the book, I specified Somerset Gloss 80# text.

Today I delivered sample sheets of both paper stocks to my client. I had received these through the commercial printing vendor, but he had requested them from the paper merchant, Lindenmeyr.

Interestingly enough, by accident—or just good fortune—the printer had requested Somerset Matte instead of Somerset Gloss. We’ll see if my client likes it. If not, we can go back to the gloss. I myself think the two sheets go together especially well since they both have a subdued appearance (the uncoated sheet against the matte sheet).

Paper Specification Breakdown

The preceding section may seem simple at first, or at least logical, but it reflects a number of technical and aesthetic decisions. It also ends with the presentation of samples to the client, who, after all, is the final arbiter.

Paper Weight

First of all, even though 55# text seems light, the Antique finish Sebago IV actually is rather thick and substantial. It feels like a 70# text sheet. This is because it has not been crushed and smoothed out in the calender rolls of the papermaking machine. This also accounts for its rough finish.

Because the main text stock is thick, I selected a thicker than usual gloss stock for the eight-page photo section. I chose 80# rather than 70# text weight. It feels more substantial than 70#, and even though it is thinner than the main text paper (Sebago IV has a bulk of 360 ppi and the Somerset Matte has a bulk of 456 ppi—lower numbers per inch equal thicker paper), the two feel compatible (with paper, the feel of the stock is what counts). If the photo section had been longer than eight pages, I might have suggested 70# matte or gloss text, since the goal would have been to avoid creating a bulky photo section.

Paper Brightness and Whiteness

Sebago IV is not particularly bright. It has a brightness level of 85 (out of 100). Therefore, the 88 brightness of the Somerset Matte will be visually consistent with the Sebago. The subdued nature of the paper (not overly bright) is perfect for a text-heavy print book. It will make reading the text easier on the eyes.

Both the main text paper and the matte coated sheet for the photos are a blue-white shade (as opposed to a cream white—or yellow-white) shade. I chose the same shade so the photo section would look compatible with the main text.

Paper Opacity

The Sebago IV sheet has an opacity (light blocking power) of 93 (out of 100), and the Somerset Matte has an opacity of 95. Given the thickness of the 80# stock for the photo section, this should be totally adequate to keep the reader from seeing the photos on the back of a page through the front of a page (this translucence, or show-through, might be more of an issue with 50#, 60#, and 70# paper weights).

Paper Availability

When I was negotiating a schedule with the commercial printing vendor’s customer service representative, she mentioned that the paper mills had warned of late deliveries. I took this very seriously for the following reasons:

  1. My client’s delivery date is firm. The print book distributor will charge late fees if the books are not delivered on time.
  2. The printer’s due date for a signed contract and commitment of funds will start the process of acquiring paper for the job. Since the printer can do nothing without paper, the date for the signed contract and funds transfer are actually more rigid than the date for submission of art files.

In general (as an aside), it is wise to remember that printers have long-standing relationships with paper merchants and paper mills. Your printer may be able to get a certain paper easily and on time, but if you choose a stock that is less readily available, this could not only be reflected in the overall price but also in the speed with which your commercial printing vendor can get the paper onto his factory floor. (Choose wisely, ask questions, and keep an open mind to paper substitutions.)

The Client Is the Final Arbiter

As noted before, my client will be the final arbiter, and nothing can help a client make a paper decision like paper samples: how they feel in the hand and how they look under various lighting conditions.

What You Can Learn from This Case Study

  1. Make friends with your paper merchant. Get samples regularly and learn to understand paper terms like “caliper,” “bulk,” “whiteness,” “brightness,” “surface texture,” and “opacity.” This will help you compare paper samples.
  2. A good rule of thumb is that photos are more spectacular on a gloss coated sheet. Failing that, choose a matte coated sheet. If you choose an uncoated sheet for photos, have a good reason for doing so (since you won’t get the varied range of tones you would on a coated sheet due to uncoated paper’s increased ink absorbency).
  3. Talk to your printer about paper cost, but also discuss paper availability. Work all of this into your final schedule—early, so you’re not unhappily surprised by the delivery date.

Commercial Printing: Four Protective Coating Options

Friday, November 7th, 2014

There are a number of reasons to coat the cover paper of a perfect-bound print book, or the dust jacket of a case bound book, or even a poster, but the primary ones involve appearance and durability. If you want the print book, for instance, to endure heavy use or last a long time (or if you want to protect heavy ink coverage from fingerprinting), consider coating the sheet. Or, if you want to contrast various dull or gloss effects against one another to highlight the printed images, you may also want to add an additional coating.

Here are four options to consider when choosing a protective coating. (Remember that this is in addition to the gloss or dull surface of a coated sheet. Protective coatings go on top of the printed, dried press sheets.)

Press Varnish

The simplest and least expensive paper coating is a varnish. Essentially varnish is ink without its colorant (or the ink vehicle with no pigment). The custom printing supplier adds this coating by using one of the ink units on his press (let’s say a fifth or sixth unit on a six-color press, after the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks have been laid down).

In fact, if you’re printing your 4-color job on a six-color press and you’re not using a PMS match color in one of the remaining ink units, you might want to add both a dull and a gloss varnish.

Perhaps you could coat the photos with the gloss varnish to make them stand out, and coat the background with a dull varnish to make it recede. Using both varnishes together would make the contrast more striking, and would cause anything covered with gloss varnish to “jump” off the page.

An alternate use for varnish is to completely coat the press sheet. This is called a flood application, in contrast to a varnish laid down in a limited area, which is called a spot application.

An alternative to a clear coating of varnish is a tinted coat. You may want to use this inside a magazine, for instance, for a subtle, ghost-like image or type treatment that can only barely be seen.

Varnish is the least durable coating, and it may yellow over time, so it’s wise to consider how long your printed product will be in use. It also can darken the inks over which it is printed. And it is not particularly useful when printed on an uncoated sheet, since it will be absorbed into the paper fibers like any other ink, potentially rendering it useless for both protection and any aesthetic effect.

Aqueous Coating

Aqueous coating comes in dull, gloss, and satin (in between dull and gloss). Like varnish, aqueous coating is applied in-line. But unlike varnish, aqueous coating is applied using a separate aqueous coating tower, which immediately follows the four or six press inking units.

Aqueous coating is a water soluble polymer, so it dries to a hard surface. Therefore, it is very durable as well as attractive. However, aqueous coating is more suited to a flood application (over the entire press sheet) than a spot coating.

Not every custom printing vendor has equipment for aqueous coating. If you request this service, your printer may need to subcontract the work, adding to the cost and schedule of the job.

Ultraviolet Coating

UV (ultraviolet) coating “cures” under ultraviolet light. It is more expensive than either varnish or aqueous coating. Unlike aqueous coating, it can be easily applied as either a spot coating or a flood coating. Usually the process is completed off-line (as a separate finishing step), in contrast to the in-line nature of applying varnish or an aqueous coating.

Since UV coating “cures” instantly when exposed to light (rather than drying when exposed to heat), no solvents are necessary and no VOCs (volatile organic compounds) are released into the atmosphere during its application.

As with aqueous coating, not every printer can apply a UV coating. Your printer may need to subcontract this work.

Film Laminates and Liquid Laminates

Even more durable than UV coating is lamination. This comes as a film or as a liquid coating. Since it seals the press sheet completely, you might wind up with book covers that curl. In this case, the uncoated interior of the book cover absorbs moisture (humidity) and expands, while the coated side does not. You can avoid this problem by specifying “lay-flat laminate,” which is permeable and allows air to pass through the polyester coating.

Things to Remember

If you will need to write on a portion of your print job with a ballpoint pen, or if you will need to inkjet information (like addresses) onto the printed press sheet, you will need to leave an unprinted area with no protective coating. Otherwise, the ink (particularly ballpoint pen ink) will smear.

That said, there are always exceptions. I have seen inkjet addressing applied directly over some coatings. Therefore, unless you play it safe and omit the coating over such an area, you will need to discuss this with your printer to make sure his equipment will accommodate your needs.

Commercial Printing: Using Paper Sample Books

Monday, October 20th, 2014

One of the downsides of having had a house fire is that all my printed samples and paper sample swatch books are gone. This is a problem for a print broker.

Actually, I have one paper book, from NewPage, that a digital printing supplier sent me this week.

Benefits of the Paper Swatch Book

Commercial printing involves putting ink or toner on paper. Paper is an important element of the product, and it’s often easy to forget this in the rush to write copy or create the graphic design. Moreover, it is sometimes confusing to specify paper. “Make it like this” is a less than specific way to describe to your custom printing supplier the kind of paper you will need. Therefore, if you have the same paper swatch books your printer does, you can, for instance, say you want “60# white gloss text, or a 10pt matte coated cover stock.” Immediately you and your printer will be communicating about the exact same paper.

So here’s a crash course based on the sample paper book I just received.

Paper Weight (Pounds vs. Points, Cover vs. Text)

Cover stock comes in a particular standard size, which is 20” x 26”. Other sizes are available, but for the sake of standardization, this is called the “basic size,” and the weight of 500 sheets at the basic size is called the “basis weight.”

Let’s say you want to print a postal mailer on 130# cover stock (your paper swatch book will note this information on the sample sheets). This basis weight is the same as 10pt. stock. That is (and you can find paper conversion charts online), the thickness and stiffness of 130# coated cover paper and 10pt. coated cover paper will be approximately the same.

My NewPage paper swatch book is ideal on this count. On the front cover of this (approximately) 5.5” x 8.5” wire-O bound book, the headline notes that I’m looking at Productolith paper. Inside, on the page I’m reviewing at the moment, the printed text notes that I’m considering “Productolith Pts., 10pt. (134 lb.) semi-gloss C1S Tag.”

This rather cryptic description includes the name of the paper, its basis weight in points, its basis weight in pounds, its coating (semi-gloss, as opposed to matte, dull, gloss, satin, or uncoated), and “tag,” a specific category of paper (a lower quality sheet used more for tags and labels than for high-end marketing collateral). The description also tells you that the coating is only on one side of the sheet (C1S, as opposed to C2S). You might use this paper if your job requires full-color heavy ink coverage on one side of the paper and just a little black ink on the other.

The printed specs do not distinguish between “cover” and “text” stock because the paper is obviously very thick. But you will need to keep this in mind when you specify paper (or review a different paper book). Most paper books will distinguish between the text sheet (for instance, 100# text measured at a basic size of 25” x 38”) and the cover sheet (for instance, 100# cover measured at a basic size of 20” x 26”, as noted above).

Paper Color (Whiteness vs. Brightness)

Paper brightness tells you how much light a paper will reflect (96 is brighter than 90, for instance). In contrast, paper whiteness tells you the color of light the paper reflects (a blue-white, or cool-white, sheet will actually appear brighter than a yellow-white, or warm-white, sheet).

Paper Surface Finish

As noted above, you have a number of options starting with high gloss (which is a good coating if your printed product includes a lot of photos–it makes them “pop,” as they say). For text, this is less ideal, since it tires your eyes. If your job includes a lot of text, you might consider a dull or matte coated sheet (a less reflective paper surface). In between gloss and dull, you’ll find silk or satin. These surface coatings have a little texture (you can feel them when you run your hand across the sheet), but they don’t have a high gloss coating.

Keep in mind that not all sheets come in all coatings and some companies have different names (some call matte paper dull; some call satin paper silk). Just think about the three textures (glossy, not glossy, and something in the middle).

All of these are coated sheets (a mixture of clay and additives added to the surface of the paper to seal the sheet and allow the ink to sit on top of the paper rather than seeping into the fibers). In addition to coated paper, there’s uncoated paper, which has a nice, natural feel. There are also other variations in texture such as “linen” (which has a criss-cross pattern), “felt” (which is like the fabric felt), and “laid” (which has a ribbed texture). The best thing you can do is ask your custom printing vendor for a handful (or several boxes full) of paper swatch books. These will become a valuable tool for communicating with your printer (and educating yourself).

Final Caveat

Printers will often forget to tell you this when they deliver your boxes of paper swatch books, but it bears repeating. Like three-day old fish, paper swatch books have a shelf life. On the back of the paper swatch book (usually in very small type), you will find the date the book was produced. (My Productolith book was produced in 2012, so it’s not that old.)

Let’s say you’ve found the perfect paper for your new marketing campaign, and your chief marketing officer has approved the stock. But let’s say that the paper book has a date of 2001 rather than 2012. Chances are, the paper has been discontinued. This could be a problem. So make sure your paper books are “fresh.”

Getting the Paper Swatch Books

You can get paper swatch books from your commercial printing sales rep or your paper merchant. Both of them want your repeated business, so I’m sure both will be most helpful in getting you a selection of these invaluable paper books.

Custom Printing: A Few Thoughts on Paper Stocks

Monday, May 12th, 2014

Paper choices can make or break a job. In fact, paper is what makes a custom printing job a physical product, although the paper used in a print job often goes unnoticed. That said, it can still have an immense subliminal effect on the reader.

Here are a few thoughts on paper: how to choose it, how to use it.

Commercial Printing on Gloss vs. Dull, or Matte, Coated Paper

If you’re not going to print your job on an uncoated stock, your other two choices are gloss and matte coated text or cover paper. As a rule, it is easier to read large amounts of text on a dull or matte press sheet than on a gloss coated sheet, but photographs seem more dramatic (i.e., they “pop”) more on a gloss coated press sheet than on a matte sheet.

If your job includes both heavy text sections and numerous photos that you want to showcase, consider choosing a matte or dull sheet and then spot gloss varnishing the photos. This will give you the best of both worlds.

Commercial Printing on Uncoated Paper

Photos and text will not be as crisp if printed on an uncoated press sheet, but this might actually be the effect you want. Let’s say you’re designing a brochure print job for a paper company and you want to showcase the environmental benefits of a certain paper stock. An uncoated sheet might just project the muted “look” you want. The crispness of the gloss coated sheet, or even the dull coated sheet, might actually conflict with the earthy, environmental tone you’re trying to convey.

That said, inks printed on uncoated paper seep into the substrate because there’s no coating to support the ink film (this is called “holdout”). Process inks and spot colors can seep into the fibers and look dull. Talk with your commercial printing vendor about this. He will be able to “open” the separations to allow for a lighter coating of ink on press. When this lighter amount of ink seeps into the paper (causing “dot gain” as it spreads), the more open screens (with smaller halftone dots) will compensate for the dot gain, and the overall effect will be more pleasing. The images won’t appear to be over-inked.

This does, however, require a fair amount of skill on your custom printing supplier’s part, so you may want to discuss your goals with your printer early in the process and/or attend a press inspection to check the overall results.

A Few Notes on Paper Handling

Paper behaves almost like a living organism. If you expose it to humidity, it will grow. This growth due to moisture will be greater in the “cross grain” direction (in contrast to “with the grain”) by a magnitude of three times. Too much moisture can warp the printing stock, or it can result in extended ink drying times. What this means is that if your printer does not handle your paper stock correctly, it will curl, become wavy, or not hold its proper dimensions.

Low humidity is bad, too. It can cause the paper to contract at the edges and expand in the middle of the sheet. Low humidity can cause problems with static electricity, change the dimensions of the paper causing misregistration on press, or make the paper brittle.

Because problems occur when paper is exposed to less than ideal humidity (or temperature, since they are related), paper needs to arrive at your custom printing vendor’s shop early, with enough time before your press date to allow it to become acclimated to your printer’s factory floor.

For instance, if the paper travels in a truck from the paper mill during the winter, and it arrives at your printer’s shop with a 10 degree Celsius (50 degree Fahrenheit) difference between the outdoor temperature (through which it traveled) and your printer’s room temperature, the paper must sit on the perssroom floor for 10 hours.

If the difference between the inside and outside temperature is 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit), the paper needs 30 hours to become acclimated to your printers inside temperature. (according to A Guide to Graphic Print Production, Second Edition, by Kaj Johansson, Peter Lundberg, and Robert Ryberg).

Your printer will want to adhere to these standards and let the paper condition correctly. After all, changes in paper dimension due to humidity problems can wreak havoc with a printer’s workflow and schedule. Therefore, make sure your paper arrives at the printer’s shop early enough to allow plenty of time for this conditioning.


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