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Printing Industry Exchange ( is pleased to have Steven Waxman writing and managing the Printing Industry Blog. As a printing consultant, Steven teaches corporations how to save money buying printing, brokers printing services, and teaches prepress techniques. Steven has been in the printing industry for thirty-three years working as a writer, editor, print buyer, photographer, graphic designer, art director, and production manager.

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Archive for July, 2019

Commercial Printing: The Marriage of Print and Digital

Sunday, July 28th, 2019

Articles in the media touting the marriage of print and digital always make me happy. Not only because I’m a firm believer in the place of custom printing (and because I’m a printing broker) but also because these articles mirror my own experience. Print and digital amplify each other’s strengths. They don’t have to fight, and one doesn’t have to replace the other.

So here’s what I read just recently. You may find it interesting. The article is entitled “Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World.” I found this on on 07/02/19. It was written by Barbara A. Pellow.

To put this in context, I’ve been reading (for many years now) about multi-channel marketing (here referred to as “omni-channel” because it encompasses all channels). Ostensibly, when a brand interacts with potential customers through many, or all, media, including print marketing, email, perhaps even large-format signage on the facades of buildings or glued to vehicles, and/or even the printed QR codes (or other patterns) that send your smart phone to a related website when you point your phone at it—the brand can expand its presence and enhance your experience. It can do this very effectively, far more so than if the brand only sent you a postcard or an email.

More exposure equals more sales, if and only if the exposure benefits the potential customer. The process has to be enjoyable, immersive, and valuable in terms of the potential customer’s buying needs.

The Thesis of Pellow’s Article

So in this light, here’s what the article says. First, it notes that printers today are expanding their services to stay relevant. They do have competition, and there is in some cases less business to be had. Or, more specifically, there is less business in terms of putting ink on paper or toner on paper. Pellow’s article notes that printers who once offered only offset lithography are now also offering digital printing, design services, direct mail, large-format signage, and expanded finishing capabilities.

(In this vein I would add such digital enhancements as digital foiling and digital die-cutting. I would also add strategic marketing advice. Printers no longer just do what you ask in terms of printing. They also advise you on how to expand your market share using their commercial printing services.)

“Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World” goes on to define the “fan experience.” (This is just one example of the benefits of multi-channel, or omni-channel, marketing, but I think it’s a good one.) Specifically, the author notes that sporting events have gone up in price, and the attention span of most people (including sports fans) has gone down (presumably due to competing ads and the ever-increasing demands of contemporary life).

This is a bad situation. So marketers have to step up and provide “a more seamless, entertaining, engaging fan experience” (“Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World”). This is what I personally call the “Wow” factor. Marketing interactions have to be great now, not just good. Otherwise, the consumer will just filter them out. But the good news is that truly great marketing initiatives absolutely will engage the potential client.

Barbara Pellow then goes on to define “clickable paper” as “an interactive print solution that bridges the traditional offline-online gap. It connects print and digital with cloud-based intelligent image recognition software” (“Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World”).

In layperson’s terms this means that you can download an app to your smartphone (Apple or Android), and when you point the camera phone at an image on a printed surface (printed page, large-format sign, poster, vehicle wrap), you will be transported to an online experience. The image recognition software will make the link between the printed page and the online content. The marketer can curate this experience, ostensibly based on a two-way conversation between the brand and the potential client. (After all, once you’re online, you can experience something and then respond to it in real time, and the online software can then tailor the ensuing experience to your needs and requests.)

In short, then, Pellow’s article says you can “enhance the fan experience by creating an interactive experience with signage and event programs” (“Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World”). These static printed pieces become a doorway into a two-way conversation based on a multi-sensory experience. “The event programs could take attendees on instant journeys from the printed page to photos, videos, statistics, and historical performances of their favorite players using a clean, markless method” (“Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World”).

What makes this especially effective, as Pellow notes, is that brands can then monitor sports fans’ online responses to the digital content and then tailor successive marketing campaigns based on this user feedback. And it is a truism that the more a brand learns from a potential client through such interaction, and the more relevant the brand can therefore make all subsequent interactions, the more likely a prospective customer will be to buy the brand’s product or service (in this case perhaps the tickets for a future sporting event).

The Take Away: What You Can Learn from This Article

I think “Clickable Paper: An Alternative for Opening the Door to the Omni-Channel World” holds far-reaching implications for all brands in all sales sectors, not just sporting events. Here’s my logic based on Pellow’s article:

  1. Events, products, and services are in many cases getting more expensive. This is true for both necessities and entertainment.
  2. People will still pay for an engaging, emotionally satisfying experience.
  3. The marketing materials (i.e., commercial printing products) have actually become part of this experience, just as an enjoyable, in-store interaction when buying a television in Best Buy can increase the buyer’s total “spend.”
  4. Therefore, as a marketing professional, your goal is to create an engaging, memorable event.
  5. You now have more tools than before, including both custom printing products and digital technology.
  6. If you blend the two, playing to the strengths of each, your chance of “Wow’ing” your clients increases, in part because you are involving more of the potential customer’s senses (not only the tactile sense evoked by commercial printing but also the visual and aural senses engaged by online media).
  7. Blended media (multi-channel, or many-channel; or omni-channel, all channel) works better than either print or digital alone. Your chances of intensely engaging the potential consumer increases significantly if you carry your brand message across multiple media.
  8. To go beyond Pellow’s article, I would say that her paradigm for omni-channel marketing will enhance not only marketing for sports events but pretty much for anything you can imagine.
  9. I think the next step, which is already under way, is to bring virtual reality into the mix. After all, now that I’m seeing more VR headsets in the thrift stores my fiancee and I frequent, it seems that virtual reality is becoming more commonplace. And up to this point, I can’t think of any experience that’s more immersive than virtual reality.

Who knows, in the very near future you might strap on a VR headset, slip your camera phone into the goggles, point your phone at a QR code on the side of a building, and be transported into a mind-bending VR experience—for a football game, or for anything else you can imagine.

Smart marketers will take note.

Commercial Printing: Thoughts on Added Paper Coatings

Monday, July 22nd, 2019

I received an email link to a commercial printing website this week. Being curious in matters of custom printing, I followed the link to a blog about this vendor’s options for cover coatings, or, more specifically, UV coating options.

This motivated me to do some more research into cover coating options. Here are a few things you might consider when specifying cover coatings.

Coated and Uncoated Paper

First of all, commercial printing paper can be categorized as either coated or uncoated. Coated paper has an extra transparent coating over its entire surface that is composed of such materials as calcium carbonate, kaolinite, and talc. This coating keeps printing ink up on the surface of the press sheet rather than allowing it to seep into the fibers of the paper. (This is called “ink holdout,” and it allows for crisp, heavily coated ink solids, precise type letterforms, and detailed photos.) Such paper coatings come in various surface textures: dull, matte, satin, and gloss. Gloss coating makes photos “pop.” Matte coating or dull coating makes text easy to read.

The other option, uncoated paper, is ideal for text-heavy print books or even annual reports, particularly if your goal is to present an environmentally friendly tone. Uncoated paper feels softer, and photos printed on uncoated paper will be a little less crisp (softer) than the same images printed on a coated press sheet. This is because the ink seeps into the underlying paper fibers.

So there are good reasons to choose both coated and uncoated printing paper. It all depends on your design goals.

Additional Paper Coatings

Once you have selected a press stock for your job, you can also choose to add an additional paper coating. For the most part, however, you would choose to do this only if you’re using a coated press sheet. This is because surface coatings seep into uncoated paper, leaving the surface either looking like it has no coating or looking unevenly coated.

(To understand this, think about what it would be like to paint on a sponge. You would not end up with an even, coated surface. The paint would just be absorbed into the cellulose fibers of the sponge.)

If you choose to add a paper coating to a press sheet, you have a number of surface textures to choose from and materials with which to do the coating, and you can produce a number of artistic effects with the coating.

To start with the goals, you would usually coat a press sheet to protect the printed ink. For instance, if you have heavy ink coverage on the cover of a print book, you might want to add a cover coating to protect the ink from scuffing. Scratches, or even fingerprints and other damage from the oils in your hands, can diminish the pristine quality of a printed piece. It can look old fast. A cover coating can minimize this damage, even over time and under heavy use.

Another goal might be to highlight elements of a design. For instance, if you print your job on a matte or dull press sheet and then “spot” coat the photos with a gloss coating, your photos will appear to jump off the page. You can do the same thing with type or a solid block of ink. (For instance, you might want to spot gloss coat a large initial capital letter on a page of your printed job.)

Regarding materials, you have a number of options for coating paper: varnishing, aqueous coating, UV coating, and laminating. In most cases you would choose one of these based on the surface texture you want, the overall cost (some options are more expensive), and the level of durability you need.

Varnish is similar to commercial printing ink without color. It is transparent. You would print a varnish using one of the printing units on your offset press. Therefore, you might choose to either flood the press sheet with the gloss or dull varnish (for protection or a particular sheen or smoothness), or you might choose to spot coat the sheet (to highlight only the photos, for instance).

On the downside, however, over time a varnish can yellow, changing the perceived color of the paper it covers. Varnish is the cheapest option, but it may be wise to use it primarily for items that do not need to last very long (such as a postcard that will be read and then discarded).

Your next option is liquid aqueous coating, which is applied with a coating tower at the end of a commercial printing press. (This is called “in-line coating,” as opposed to “off-line coating,” which refers to coating added after the job has been printed and has dried.) Being an aqueous product, aqueous coating is environmentally friendly. However, you would use aqueous coating primarily as a “flood coating,” in part because its application is not as precise as the application of a varnish. However, by using an aqueous coating, you avoid any problems with yellowing that varnish can present. Aqueous coating is also more durable than varnish.

UV coating is a third option. This liquid is usually applied “off line,” after the printed job has dried and on different coating equipment (sometimes by a different vendor altogether). It can be applied as a flood coating or a spot coating, and it can be one of the shiniest options you can choose (it can be glossier than varnish, for example). UV coating dries instantly (this is actually called “curing”) once it is exposed to UV light. Once cured, UV coating is inert (and therefore environmentally friendly).

A fourth option is lamination (think of menus in a pancake house, which must take a lot of abuse and be wiped clean with a wet sponge repeatedly). Lamination is applied off line. It comes in a number of thicknesses (from 1.2 mils to 10 mils or more). Lamination is expensive. (UV coating and aqueous coating are less expensive, and varnish is cheap.) If your print job has a long press run, lamination can add a considerable cost. It can also add considerable weight to a printed product, which can drive up mailing (i.e., postage) costs.

Things to Consider

Here are some things to keep in mind when selecting a paper coating:

  1. Varnish can be tinted with a little ink. This can provide a film of transparent color, which can be used for subtle, ghosted images. However, as noted before, it will yellow over time. The yellowing is more noticeable over unprinted paper than over process inks.
  2. Aqueous coatings have a higher abrasion resistance than varnish. They can also be smoother and shinier than varnish. Because they seal the underlying press sheet entirely, they can keep air away from metallic inks, keeping them from tarnishing. If your printer can specially formulate the aqueous coatings, you can write on them with a No. 2 pencil or overprint them with a laser printer. (Otherwise, you need to “knock out”–or omit varnish or aqueous coating from–any area that must be written on or mechanically addressed.) Finally, aqueous coatings are best on thicker press sheets. Thin press sheets (one article says less than 80# text) may curl or wrinkle.
  3. Aqueous and UV coatings can chemically interact with the underlying inks (certain hues like Reflex Blue and Rhodamine Violet have changed or burned out or bled, according to some of the articles I read). Time, heat, and exposure to light can cause these changes to occur, sometimes suddenly, up to months or years after the press run.
  4. UV coatings come in a lot of different surface textures (as noted on the printer’s website I mentioned at the beginning of this article). The particular custom printing vendor who sent me the link includes “soft feel,” “rubber feel,” and “sandpaper” among their offerings. This can be especially exciting depending on how it is used. For instance, no online advertisement can be as dramatic as a print ad for an oceanfront property with a spot sandpaper UV coating over the sandy beach in the photo. That said, UV coatings can be tricky. Some printers want to only use them with UV inks; others require that the underlying inks be wax free and be allowed to dry completely before the application of the UV coating. Some recent ink developments involve hybrid inks that minimize drying problems and surface texture problems when used with UV coatings.

The Takeaway

Ask your commercial printing supplier for samples of any paper coatings you are considering. See exactly what they will look like before you commit to one coating or another.

Ask about any potential liabilities (drying problems, yellowing, etc.).

Ask about the potential for cracking if the print job folds and the coating extends across the folds.

Consider the cost (and the press run length). Choose an option that fits your budget.

Also consider any weight a thick coating (like laminating film) can add if you plan to mail your printed product.

Book Printing: Read the Fine Print in the Contract

Sunday, July 14th, 2019

It could be argued that nothing is more boring to read than a contract, except perhaps an insurance policy. However, if you buy commercial printing for a living, it behooves you to at least skim the contract looking for a number of key agreements between you and the custom printing vendor. It will save you money, undue surprise, and overall stress.

First of all, if you’re buying a commercial printing job like the printing of a brochure, you may never see a contract. I regularly get pricing for small jobs in the body of an email. Granted, even this is a contract, but the more lengthy contracts usually accompany estimates for book printing. I’m not sure why, although I’ve noticed this for the past (almost) 30 years I’ve been buying printing. Perhaps it’s because book printing costs tend to be high when compared to many final bills for commercial (non-book) print jobs.

What to Look For

I received a book printing bid today accompanied by a section entitled “Terms.” “Terms and Conditions” and “Printing Trade Customs” are other phrases to look for because these address such issues as who pays for delivery, who is responsible for damages during delivery, what kind of “overage” you can expect to pay for, and other, similar issues.

First of all, anything entitled “Trade Customs” or “Printing Trade Customs” or any similar language will be broad in scope because it will usually pertain to agreements considered reasonable across the entire commercial printing industry. It may help you to contact your printer, request such a listing, and familiarize yourself with it.

“Printing Trade Customs” boilerplate language usually addresses such matters as who owns the intermediate work of a print job (after you submit files and before the job delivers). When negatives of book pages were produced (prior to direct to plate) and these negatives were stored, a printer’s policy on this matter would be useful to know if you, as a print buyer, ever required reprints of a job.

Now, in a completely digital world, it helps to know for how long your printer will store your electronic files. For instance, a print brokering client of mine regularly reprints selections from her 28-copy color swatch book series. These are fashion color print books (like PMS swatch books but specifically for choosing fashion and make-up colors). Each book is 118 pages plus cover in length. For my client, it helps that the book printer saves all of my client’s master copies on his digital storage drives.

To initiate this last reprint, all my client had to do was upload one revised PDF file of one page for one of the 28 master books, and then approve the proofs for all master books and release the job to print. If the printer didn’t have a policy for saving customer art files for a certain length of time, my client would have to resubmit the 28-master-copy job each time.

So issues such as these are often addressed in the boilerplate printing contract language, and it is therefore wise to familiarize yourself with the wording and its meaning.

File Submission Guidelines

To get back to the “Terms” section I received today with a book estimate, this particular document addresses file submission guidelines (how to prepare PDF files for the text and whether to submit native InDesign files for the cover of the print book job). The contract sent me to a website describing all PDF parameters and presumably offering downloadable “plug-in” files to set up the documents in ways compatible with the printer’s prepress workflow software.

The document also notes that the first half hour of system time the printer must spend to fix any problems in my file is free, but that additional time will be billed at $50.00 per hour. This is noteworthy for two reasons. It shows that submitting accurate, press-ready art files will save you money, checking the files a few times to cull out the errors will save you money, and retrieving any problematic files from the printer to fix yourself will save you money. Fortunately, this particular printer will notify you if file repairs will exceed one hour of their system time.

Printing Issues You Didn’t Mention in the RFQ

You may have forgotten to mention the heavy ink coverage or bleeds when you sent specs to the book printer and requested an estimate. It’s easy to forget this. But in this particular printer’s “Terms” section, the printer notes that upon receipt of the files, if there are any inconsistencies between your specs and the actual job, revised pricing will be sent to you before the job begins.

Granted, it’s better to know this before you get the final bill, but you can always avoid this surprise (sticker shock) by specifying all bleeds, heavy coverage, halftones, die cutting, foil stamping, and anything else that might cost extra money. If you’re not sure of what to include, then it’s smart to print out a laser copy of your job (selected pages, if it’s a book), mark these up with notations on color usage, cover coating, bleeds, and such, and then send the hard-copy sample to the printer.

You can also send a printed sample if you’re looking for a special effect, like a particular cover coating or perhaps a sculpted embossing job.

More Boilerplate Contract and “Terms” Language

“Materials prices are subject to the market rate” means that if paper prices go up, you cover the increased cost. A good way to control this cost is to keep your bids current. Most bids become stale (out of date) within a certain period of time. (The estimate I received today says the pricing is good for 45 days.) However, even within this time, if there’s a spike in paper prices, I’ll have to pay for it (or my client will). This is all “industry standard” language.

The “Terms” section also notes that I can be charged for 10 percent overs or credited for 10 percent unders. If I absolutely need a certain number of copies of a job (i.e., no unders), I’ll usually have to accept more overs than standard. (In this regard, 10 percent overs/unders is the norm.) Some printers don’t charge for overs. Others only charge for a lower number, such as 3 percent overs.

It’s prudent to discuss this with your printer early in the process, particularly if you can’t accept fewer than your requested number. (Let’s say you have a 3,000-name mailing list and you order exactly 3,000 brochures, but your printer shorts you by 300. That’s a problem—but it’s probably still industry-standards compliant. So discuss this early.

Also, look for the word “tolerance” in your contract. This is an important word. It means the acceptable amount of error for a trim, for instance. Post-press cutting equipment isn’t perfect. For this particular printer (according to the contract I received), a 1/8” error is acceptable. To you, this means that you should keep any page numbers (folios) or any other printed matter away from the trim edge. Or you might lose it or part of it to the trimmer.

Also, remember that for successive folds and trims, folding and trimming errors become magnified.

“FOB Printer’s Plant” means the printer puts the job on the freight carrier truck at his press plant, but then it is no longer his responsibility. Personally, I like to have the printer arrange for the freight. Then the job is mine only after it has been delivered to me or my client.

Usually under “Terms” (as is the case with the contract I received today), the printer notes the cost of using a credit card as payment. In this case it’s three percent. This just means he is passing on to me what Visa charges him.

Finally, this particular “Terms” contract notes that if something goes wrong, the printer is only liable for the print job, not lost sales or any other damages. This is how this relates to you: If your job has to be somewhere at a particular time or it’s useless (let’s say a particular marketing brochure), it’s up to you to work out a schedule that both you and the printer can meet. If the job is delivered late, you can’t sue for lost sales.

What You Can Learn From This “Terms” Document

Be forewarned. This is just a sampling of information that could probably fill multiple books on printing contracts. I just pulled a few terms from the contract I received this morning. The best way for you to be prepared is to request such a document from your printer and read it carefully. In fact, it wouldn’t hurt to get several contracts from several printers.

Also, Google “Printing Trade Customs” online and see what comes up. Think of all this research as an investment, and expect it to be a process you spread over a number of years, learning a little bit at a time. But do make it a practice to learn the trade customs. It will save you money.

“Plan B” is to be proactive. Write everything down. Compose your own spec sheet and job description. Print out a complete laser copy of the job (as mentioned before) with notations for color placement, tabs, die cuts, bleeds, cover coating, varnish, etc., etc, etc. Then collect any relevant printed samples, and meet with your printer to discuss everything.

In fact, the best thing you can do to avoid surprises is to consult your printer early in the process and follow up often thereafter.

Custom Printing: A “Look Book” for Choosing Illustrators

Sunday, July 7th, 2019

My fiancee and I love thrift stores. In fact, there is seldom a question of what we want to do when we have free time. She likes the clothes, and I like the print books.

That said, my fiancee always looks for books relevant to our art therapy work with the autistic, and this week she found The Directory of Illustration 26 produced by Serbin Communications, Inc.

Granted, this particular edition is from 2008 (that’s what you get at thrift stores), but it illustrates (so to speak) a number of things about acquiring the rights to reprint images in your own publications work. It also provides good ideas for artwork, and it even says something about the persistence of print books.

A Description of the Print Book

The Directory of Illustration 26 is a case-bound volume, over 550 pages in length, full color throughout, printed on what feels like 80# or 100# gloss text. It is massive, almost two inches thick (given the combination of the luxurious paper and the ample page count). The binding indicates that it is also made to last.

Let’ start with the purpose of the book. Beautifully printed in full color, this is a “look book” for illustrators. When you are an art director or graphic artist, you may or may not be an illustrator as well. They are two separate disciplines, just as being a graphic designer and being a photographer are two separate professions. If you are designing magazine spreads, for instance, and you want to provide a visual interpretation of the editorial content, you might need an illustrator, particularly if your subject matter has more of a fantastical or interpretive nature than photography can capture.

So how do you proceed? This book is, for the most part, broken down into groups of illustrators represented by specific agencies. The agents negotiate the financial terms, while the artists they represent focus on creating art. Essentially, you page through the book to select particular styles of illustration that appeal to you (based on drawing skill, style of rendering subject matter, color usage, overall creative vision—whatever criteria you choose). You may even choose based on subject matter. (For instance, if you are producing a medical journal, you may need illustrators well versed in both artistic anatomy—how to draw heads and hands–and the particulars of drawing internal organs, cells, and such.)

The key here is that not all illustrators do everything, just as not all designers are also illustrators or photographers.

Once you understand that this print book is a directory, you’ll understand why the paper is bright and heavy and why the binding is so sturdy. In essence, this is a book that will be used heavily for at least a year. It will probably either be in the design studio as a reference for all designers in a design firm or in the possession of only the art director. It is a reference book. Moreover, it is also an advertisement for each and every illustrator it represents. Illustrators make their money acquiring new clients through print books like this. And agents make their commissions representing them. Regarding the bright blue-white paper, the brightness and whiteness make the transparent printing inks “pop.” So the images jump off the page. And the thickness of the paper suggests luxury and opulence.

The History of Illustration Directories

But why not do all of this online?

Back in the 1990s, when I was an art director/production manager, all of the books like these were, well, books. When the photo editor came into my office and suggested that we acquire stock images (set-up shots he himself didn’t have time to do) on CD or via the Internet, I couldn’t wrap my brain around the concept. As an art director, I was used to going to brick-and-mortar picture agencies (in physical buildings) and reviewing the 35mm slides they gave me based on my specific content requests. A new alternative at the time was to page through books, such as these, containing photos and illustrations.

Now all of this is online. You just type in a few words to search for specific content or styles, and you’re on your way. That said, I still think some graphic designers and art directors enjoy paging through well-designed “look books” (which are essentially portfolios of artists’ work) to make their decisions, particularly if their own work will show up in physical form. (After all, computer screens are backlit, so the images appear brighter than they do in print. Personally, I’d choose illustrators for print books from just such a print book—if these “talent directories” still exist.)

How to Pay for These Images

Back when I was an art director, we had in-house photographers. They took candid photos of the educational programs our business offered. But once in a while we needed more specific and perhaps more stylized images for print book covers. So we often staged these. We did photo shoots, with special lighting and perhaps a model. We created the image we wanted in a tailored way, in contrast to the candid images, which were more reportage than stylistic images.

Once in a while we needed photos from other parts of the world for the print book covers, to illustrate the global content of these particular books. This is when we approached picture agencies. Later, we choose photos from books like The Directory of Illustration 26 (in my case photography rather than illustration). Then you could buy generic photos and illustrations on CDs offered in stores or on the Internet. Now you would do the same thing by choosing images online.

But the key to all of this is that depending on what you would buy, you would pay on a different scale.

In the most generic sense of photos and illustrations, if you got it for free (or on a CD), the image was generic, and anyone could use it. Now, you can start your search for free images through Creative Commons (look online). Many of these images are specifically offered without royalties, but do be careful and read the fine print. If you break the copyright laws you can be sued. Understandably. Photographers and illustrators work hard to make these images, and they deserve payment.

Other images are “rights managed” or “royalty free.” When I was choosing images at picture agencies for book covers, the payment (royalties) for use of the images (because we didn’t own the images; we just had purchased rights to reproduce them in specific ways) were based on the following:

  1. How many copies were we printing?
  2. Was the image to be used in the text of the book or on the cover of the book?
  3. Was the publication intended for marketing use, or was it an editorial publication?

Most of what we bought at the time was “rights manged.” We had to follow the parameters noted above, but there was almost no chance that other people/marketers/organizations were using the same images. We paid a premium for this, and the reproduction rights were for a limited time.

In other cases we would buy an image that was more generic, with fewer use constraints, for far less money. In both cases we had to credit the photographer or illustrator in a particular way in the publication (very visibly), but we had more flexibility. In paying less money, we also knew that many other non-profit and for-profit organizations (our competition) were also using the exact same image.

What You Can Learn from This Illustration Directory

As a designer or art director, you can’t do it all. It’s often cheaper to pay to use images (either illustrations or photos) than to hire a staff illustrator or photographer.

Regardless of what you do, read the contracts carefully. (And ask about all options, not just rights managed and royalty-free contracts). Don’t assume that even old images from, let’s say, the Great Depression, are out of copyright, or that everything you think is “Creative Commons” is in fact free to use. Also, keep to the contract, to the letter, regarding how you use the image, whether you alter it and how, whether you use the image to sell something. In short, follow the contract.

And if you’re hiring an illustrator (through a book like The Directory of Illustration 26, or through an online contact), get several estimates, check samples, but also make sure the style in which the illustrator works (the overall look of the illustrations) matches the brand image you’re trying to convey. That is, choose a medical illustrator for medical images, or choose a more simplistic illustration design for a children’s book and perhaps a more realistic or stylized approach for a print book for adults.

Book Printing: Why Skill in Typesetting Is Important

Monday, July 1st, 2019

One of my new clients is a “wordsmith.” She helps authors get their books into print and then promotes them. I have a lot of respect for her. Just recently, though, as I understand her situation, a new client of hers asked her to not only edit the text of his print book but also lay it out in MS Word. He wanted to save money by not paying a designer to lay out the text of the book (fortunately, he did pay for a professionally designed cover).

I want to clarify the direction in which my thoughts are going. My client referred to the text design of the print book as “desktopping.” This term, in itself, does not carry the weight of the skill and experience of the proper term, “book designer.” In fact, it is easy to assume that just because one can process the words of a print book, add photos, add a table of contents, and such, that this is of the same caliber as the product created by an experienced designer who understands typography, layout, page grids, the use of white space, and all the myriad of nuances that make a professionally designed book aesthetically appealing (and easier to read).

When I started in the field of publications management, back in the late 1970s, I would take the manuscripts for the magazine (I was the managing editor) to the typesetter. She produced galleys (a photographic process of setting each line of type on a dedicated computer). These were then physically pasted up on grid paper based on a mock-up of the design that I had created. (The key here is that the typesetter did nothing but set type. She was an expert in this aspect of publishing.)

Granted, this was before desktop publishing, which democratized publication design by making it “possible” for anyone to produce text. But the typesetter understood the various classifications of type, how the type letterforms differed, why to choose one over another, and how to “tweak” type with such precise controls as kerning and tracking. She also understood such elements of design as adding letterspacing (moving successive lines of type slightly apart to improve readability).

The designer who then pasted up the magazine also understood these elements of design. She knew exactly how to specify these type nuances and communicate directly with the typesetter such that both professionals could work together to create a readable, attractive magazine based on the paper mock-up I had taped together (using photocopies of the strips of typeset manuscript—the galleys). Everyone understood their own and everyone else’s job. Everyone could communicate based on this understanding. But since everyone’s respective job differed from everyone else’s and since each required a depth of knowledge not held by the others, it took all of the participants to produce a quality magazine.

Then, in the late 1980s, everything changed. At that point, everything could be done on a desktop computer. Granted, this made the publishing process faster, easier, and cheaper. Untrained staff could produce a newsletter for next to nothing. For certain things, that’s great. (I’m a great believer in doing what is necessary in a particular situation, neither more nor less. For certain publishing tasks, good enough is good enough. Most people won’t see the difference. When I started in the field, I couldn’t tell the difference.)

Back to My Client

I don’t want to disparage my client. I think she is wonderful and highly skilled. However, in order to help her prepare the text for her client’s print book (with me working as her commercial printing broker), I have had to teach her to look closely for a number of things. Catching and correcting these errors will make her client’s book look more professional and be easier to read. If you are new to design, these are some things you might want to consider as well, whenever you design a print book:

  1. My client set the entire book—excluding the cover–in MS Word rather than InDesign. Some printers won’t accept MS Word files. When processed in prepress, some MS Word files can apparently develop problems. I believe these include reflowing of copy and/or potential inadvertent font changes. This may have been addressed and corrected in the recent past, but I was always taught by printers to use InDesign or Quark. Typesetting functions of these dedicated page composition software packages are more nuanced and more precise. In my client’s case, she will save the MS Word file as a PDF (which should eliminate problems, or at least keep them from creating unexpected results). However, I have asked the printer to check the files carefully as well. When my client reviews the hard-copy proofs of the print book, she will also be able to look for any anomalies (changed fonts or reflowed copy). But if she had used InDesign, there would have been far less opportunity for error.
  2. The Takeaway
    Always use a dedicated page composition program for laying out your publication, brochure, or any other commercial printing job. Don’t use Microsoft Publisher. Don’t use Illustrator. Don’t use Photoshop. Use InDesign or Quark.

  3. My client set the text of the book justified, without hyphenation. Therefore, MS Word either jammed words together (with too little word-spacing) or put too few words on a line (sometimes only three words with large spaces in between). This minimizes readability, because the spaces between words are so different from line to line throughout the 428 pages of the book. And minimized readability tires the reader’s eyes, making it less likely that she or he will continue reading. Moreover, if the type looks amateurish, people will question the accuracy of the content. It’s like a bad proofreading job. If your manuscript has spelling errors or errors in grammar, the reader will wonder whether the facts in the print book are also incorrect. It’s human nature. In fact, it may not always even be conscious. And at best, it slows down the reader’s progress.
  4. The Takeaway
    Avoid justified text whenever possible. Flush left/ragged right text is easier to read because the space between words is always the same. The reader’s eye gets used to this, and she or he gets into a reading “rhythm,” proceeding more quickly through the text. If you have to justify copy, use hyphenation to minimize differences in word spacing. But also carefully review the text (on a printout, not the computer screen) to identify problematic lines of type (which create a condition known as “rivers of white” running down the page).

  5. My client left some subheads at the bottom of pages without the paragraphs to which they referred.
  6. The Takeaway
    Make separate review passes through the entire print book text, looking for a number of errors and inconsistencies: in hyphenation, spacing between lines of type and particularly between typographic elements such as bulleted items (anything where the spacing is different from that of the running text). Make sure there are no “widows” or “orphans” (parts of words at the beginning or end of pages). Leave subheads with at least a few lines of the following paragraph, and start a new page with at least a few lines of copy.

  7. My client kept all photos as RGB images in a book text file that was for a black-ink-only print job. While the digital printer will automatically convert these to grayscale (black and white halftones), some of my client’s images will become too dark in this transition. So I have asked her to change the mode from RGB to grayscale and re-import the images. This way she will see how she can expect the final printed images to look. If they are too dark, she can lighten them before sending the job to press.
  8. The Takeaway
    Never send a color job to press with RGB images. Images for print should be CMYK (if the book is full color). For black-ink-only text blocks, always use grayscale, not color or bitmapped, images.

  9. On the title page, my client did not kern the letter pair “Wa” (in the word “War”). In large type, pairs of letters such as “Wa”–or, worse, “WA”–will appear to be too far apart. In my client’s case, this looked amateurish because of the size of the type (the title of the book on the title page). The type size magnified the flaw.
  10. The Takeaway
    In your own work, print out a copy of the text, and look for too much space in the pairs of letters, particularly in larger type. Learn how to tighten type using the “kerning” function (again, something like this will be superior in InDesign and Quark because these applications are intended for typesetting).

Why Is This Important?

Everything you design, print, and distribute is an ad. It reflects the quality of your work. If your type design looks amateurish, this will make your reader question the accuracy of the content, at worst, or tire his/her eyes, at best.

What’s the Most Important Thing You Can Do to Avoid These Problems?

Study typography. Learn the difference between Old Style, Transitional, and Modern typeface classifications. Learn to kern type. Make the study of type an interesting, lifelong pursuit. Understand how typography fits into the overall design of a printed piece. Look at printed jobs you like and try to articulate why they are attractive. Expect your knowledge base to grow and expand, but assume this will take time. If you don’t have the time, hire a professional designer (not a “desktopper”), and then focus on what you yourself do best.


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