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Printing Industry Exchange ( is pleased to have Steven Waxman writing and managing the Printing Industry Blog. As a printing consultant, Steven teaches corporations how to save money buying printing, brokers printing services, and teaches prepress techniques. Steven has been in the printing industry for thirty-three years working as a writer, editor, print buyer, photographer, graphic designer, art director, and production manager.

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Archive for the ‘Book Binding’ Category

Book Printing: Unique Book Binding/Finishing Formats

Monday, October 8th, 2018

My fiancee recently brought home from the thrift store two intriguing books for the grandchildren. The first is The Slant Book, written by Peter Newell, and the second is How Does the Show Go On?, written by Thomas Schumacher.

What makes both of these books particularly interesting to me is their unique binding methods. Both are striking. I’ve never seen anything quite like them before. In addition, the uniqueness of each reinforces the theme of the print book. That is, the special effect is not gratuitous. The form reinforces the meaning.

The Slant Book

One of the attributes of every print book I’ve read until now has been the quality of squareness or rectilinerarity. Abutting edges have always been set at a right angle: 90 degrees. Trimming knives I’ve seen at book binderies have also been set at a right angle. It has been a given, an expectation.

That said, I was intrigued to see that The Slant Book is more of a rhombus. Opposite sides are equal and parallel (the bind edge and face trim; the head trim and foot trim), but the angles themselves are not 90 degrees. The book tilts upward. The top of the spine is at an an angle greater than 90 degrees, and the bottom of the spine is at an angle less than 90 degrees.

This brings up a lot of questions for me, and the Internet was not forthcoming with answers. First of all, I wondered how you would put it in a bookcase. Since I am somewhat obsessive compulsive, this would be the first question that comes to mind for me. The second was, How did they do that? After all, trimming knives are set at right angles to one another on all of the finishing equipment I’ve seen.

The first question was easy enough to answer, assuming that the face trim margin of the book would stick out above the line of equally tall books, while the spine was flush with the spines of the other books on the shelf.

To answer the second question, I had to make assumptions based on experience. After all, Google came up dry. To start with, opposite sides of the book were parallel. Therefore, it seemed to me that to cut both the print book block and the binder’s boards (The Slant Book is a case-bound volume), either a single guillotine cutter or two parallel knives of the three-knife trimmer could be used.

In addition, and to keep control of the precise placement of the book during its trimming, perhaps a wooden jig of some kind had held these print books in exactly the same position for each trim. As to the printed litho paper laminated to the boards and turned over the edges, plus the fabric covering the spine and extending about an inch onto the front and back covers, this might have been done by hand.

Granted, the work would have required precision. After all, I’ve seen badly bound books that neither open nor close easily because of imperfections in the binding angles, paper grain direction, or any number of other reasons. Because of this, I was very impressed—as well as perplexed.

From the point of view of the content, I was also more than a little bit amused. The illustrations, and even the backward slanted type on the left-hand pages, made the format look not only intentional but also most appropriate. Starting on the cover, the characters of The Slant Book go slip sliding down the incline, from a runaway baby carriage to a police officer knocked off his feet to a push cart full of trinkets. Even the cover expresses this slantedness, with the characters seeming to run forward quickly due to the inclined cover surface.

The book format and the cover and text content work together perfectly, hand in hand.

How Does The Show Go On?

The second book is aimed at an older audience. You could say that adults might appreciate it as much as children, given the full-color treatment both on the cover and throughout the text, along with the flashy photos of Broadway, the playbills, and the tickets.

Again, what sets this print book apart is its binding. Like the first book, the second is case bound. This is also a square format, but with a vertical split right down the center of the front cover. I’d call this a “barn-door” effect (similar to a gatefold but with equal emphasis given to the left and right panels that both open outward). The photo on the cover is a theater stage, and the panels opening to the left and right reveal the first page of the book, much as a rising theater curtain reveals the scene of the play being presented.

How was this done, you might ask. The left panel of the case-bound cover is a shortened front cover binder’s board with the litho-printed stock laminated to the chipboard. It begins at the half-way point and extends to the left, toward and around the spine and then fully across the back of the book. Then it continues vertically (another small binder’s board) up across the face trim of the book. Finally it comes back to the center of the print book, where it vertically meets and abuts to the first half-panel.

So the entire cover creates a wrap. A little box with no top or bottom. Just sides. It’s absolutely perfect for a print book whose contents are all about revealing and then showcasing what’s on the stage. Interestingly enough, even the full-bleed photo immediately under this unique cover creates a sense of movement. Half of this photo is the pasted down endsheet for the cover (a photo of wooden running and jumping creatures with horns–perhaps gazelles), and the other half is the loose flyleaf (a continuation of the image on the left) covering page one of the text. Again, form follows content. The image is revealed, but it is also made up of two traditional print book binding components: the endsheet and the flyleaf.

True to form, the interior of the book (even though this is an article on binding) also includes some striking finishing techniques. For instance, a full-size, bound theater playbill is tipped onto a hanger and glued to a book page. It looks exactly like one you would receive when shown to your theater seat. Later in the book, and also tipped onto a hanger glued to a book page, is a small pocket folder containing theater-related drawings. There’s also an acetate sheet–with printed hair and moustache–attached above an image of a man without the hair and beard (that is, you lay down the clear acetate, and the actor’s costume facial hair is attached to this face). And the list of intriguing finishing operations goes on. Each provides access to an element of theater. Each is a discovery.

In all cases, the physical approach to the book and the binding and finishing techniques used complement the content of the book.

What We Can Learn From These Print Books

  1. In your own design work, use both the page design (type, color, and imagery) and the physical properties of book design (materials, folding and cutting operations, tip-ons) to reinforce and enhance the meaning of the book. These should be intrinsic to the design and theme, not pretty add-ons.
  2. Always involve your commercial printing supplier early. For books like these, choose your printer first and then work with him to realize your vision.
  3. Expect to pay a lot for these enhancements.
  4. Remember that there’s a reason books are still with us, even if we have access to eReaders. None of these special treatments could have been done on a digital, screen-only product. All of them are tactile, and all engage the reader actively and physically (for instance, you have to pull the inserts out of their pockets to read them).

Book Printing: What Is Library Binding?

Sunday, July 15th, 2018

A few days ago when my fiancee and I were at the thrift store looking through print books of paintings and drawings for our art therapy classes, another teacher approached us. After a brief discussion of our respective work, she gave us a number of books she was about to donate. Not only were they a great overview of the history of art (in about fifteen volumes), but they were also very nicely bound.

As a printing broker and a student of commercial printing, I’m always looking at the quality of a print product. These books were case bound in heavy cloth with an acrylic that permeated the fabric. They were also sewn. It looked to me like they had been case bound for serious use over a number of years. Beyond the content of the print books, this is what attracted me to them. And they reminded me of books I had seen in the libraries when I was in elementary school.

So I did some research and came upon the term “library binding.” Here is what I learned:

    1. Library bound books are either bound this way initially (“original,” for use in libraries) or rebound by the libraries (through outside vendors) after many years of use in order to protect them. The latter are called “after market” library bound print books.


    1. After market binding can be used for binding serials (these would include segments of a longer work of fiction or anything else that is published in segments). It can also be used for binding paperbacks and hardback books.


    1. An alternative to library binding for paperbacks is the “stiffening” process. This process involves the adding of fabric or Tyvek tape to the inside joints of the book, and then adding stiff paper board to the inside front and back covers. This process is easier and therefore cheaper than library binding. It does not involve either rebinding or sewing, but it will lengthen the lives of paperback books and allow them to stand up on the library shelves.


    1. Actual library binding includes sewing the pages into place. The technical term is “oversewing.” First the book spines are ground off (milled) or cut off, leaving a collection of loose pages. These are then grouped into signatures and sewn with an overlock stitch. After this, the signatures are sewn together to create a complete book block. To add further support, the binder glues a piece of linen to the spine, and then sets the book block into a heavy, durable case, either rounding the spine and backing it to prevent its caving in or (if the pages are too fragile or the book block is too thick) leaving a flat back. As with other case-bound books, a library bound book is then set into a rigid case, and end papers are added in the front and back of the print book.


    1. The fabric used in library binding is called “buckram.” It is made from thick, 100% cotton cloth. Because of the acrylic added to this cloth, the binding is especially durable. It is also resistant to mold, insects, water, and UV light. So it will last a long time. In addition, because of the oversewing, the books bound in this manner are not only strong but also easy to open, and they can be opened flat to allow for photocopying.


    1. After books have been bound in this manner, they can be hot foil stamped with any necessary identifying information. For ease of identification, serials are usually bound in the same color of buckram.


    1. A lighter-weight option for binding is c-cloth, which may or may not have an acrylic coating.


  1. Due to the kinds of finishing operations needed for library binding, the books are collected and then processed in bulk by a limited number of library binding vendors.

Why You Might Find This Interesting

First of all, the purpose of library binding is to create a printed product that is both durable and easy to open and use. But more than this, the process ensures the longevity of the content of the books: the knowledge itself. Moreover, it is also a conservation process, in that library binding can be used to repair books that otherwise would be in bad enough shape to discard.

Secondly, it reflects a partnership between the libraries and the few bookbinders that do this kind of work. Granted, the bookbinders make money, but in this case they also repair and preserve the books, both for their content and their archival value (since some of them may be quite old).

If the interior text pages have become brittle (which happens over time, particularly if there is a high acidic content in the paper), library binding may not be in order.

In addition, if the book will have value as an artifact (that is, if it will hold more value in the original binding, as a work of art in and of itself), a library may choose not to bind it in this manner. (That is, if it is valued for its physical attributes as well as its content, then library binding may not be in order.)

Finally, a library might not choose this option if the damage to the book is slight and can be repaired quickly and easily in-house by library staff.

When you think about it, a rare book is a work of art. And just as a museum might have an entire department devoted to cleaning and repairing oil paintings on canvas or prints on paper, a library may take a comparable approach to the conservation of its works, in order to ensure their existence for many decades to come.

What I like about this is that it shows respect for a number of things:

    1. The content of the books. A library that chooses to rebind books in this manner is showing a commitment to the availability of the print books and their ease of use.


    1. The historical value of the books (in addition to their content).


  1. And finally the artistic value of the books (in addition to their content).

This is not an inexpensive process, as with any case binding. So in my estimation it reflects a library’s commitment to and respect for the bound volumes on its shelves.

Book Printing: Smyth Sewing Books for Strength

Friday, April 14th, 2017

For our rest and relaxation, my fiancee and I spend long hours in thrift stores. She likes the clothes; I like the books. One benefit for my work as a commercial printing broker is that I see how print books age. I see the yellowed paper in the books from the ‘70s and ‘80s and the pristine paper and binding work in books close to 100 years old (i.e., due to their superior materials).

I also see how various bindings hold up: which books are still in good condition twenty years after their publishing date and which books are losing pages.

Three Current Print Brokering Jobs

Three of my current print brokering clients are producing books at the moment. One is entirely case bound (all copies). One is a short-run job: 500 copies of a 488-page paperback book. The final product is a split binding of a 550-page book (2,000 to 10,000 copies paper bound and 1,000 copies case bound). For the most part, all are close to 8.5” x 11” in format. What they all have in common is that their page counts are high. They are all long books.

How does this affect the binding?

Two ways to approach the binding of either a perfect-bound (paperback) or case-bound (hard-cover) book are notch binding (or a similar option that is called burst perfect binding) and Smyth Sewing. With notch and burst binding, you first gather and stack the press signatures (lets say thirty-two 16-page press signatures for a 512-page print book, or sixteen 32-page signatures for the same page count).

Then, if you’re perfect-binding the book you grind off the bind edge, add hot-melt glue to the ground-off spine, and wrap a paper cover around the text block. For a burst-bound job you puncture the signature folds, and for a notch-bound job, you cut notches in the bind edge, apply the glue, and add the paper cover.

In these cases (which are best used for paper-bound books but can also be used for hard-bound books), grinding, piercing, or notching the bind edge before applying the glue just gives the glue more surface area of the paper to grab onto. More surface area allows for better glue adhesion and less likelihood that the pages will fall out.

Unfortunately, all of these print books are very long, as noted before, so the text blocks are heavy, and neither burst binding nor notch binding is as durable as one of the more traditional methods for case binding books: that is, Smyth Sewing.

Enter Smyth Sewing

If you open a case-bound children’s book, you will see a little thread running down the gutter of the book, in and out. You will also see the thread running down the center of a large-format art book at a museum, or a library book, or any other book that costs a lot and is intended to last for decades. Smyth Sewing is a durable way to make sure the pages don’t fall out.

The way Smyth Sewing works is that the stitches run the length of the fold (the folded side of the press signature), and then additional stitches sew together the separate signatures that comprise the entire book. Then the text block bind edge is covered with glue, attached to a liner (called a “crash”) and either set into the case side (i.e., suspended from binder’s boards wrapped with binding cloth and paper) for case binding or wrapped with a paper cover (for perfect binding).

What makes this stronger than notch binding or burst binding is that in addition to the glue seeping into the ground-off or notched bind edge of the gathered press signatures, you have the added holding power of the binding thread.

When the books have been opened and closed hundreds or multiple hundreds of times and they wind up in the thrift stores my fiancee and I frequent, the print books may be banged up a bit, but the pages are still attached firmly into the binding.

Things to Remember

Here are some things to keep in mind when you consider whether to pay extra for Smyth Sewing:

    1. Two of the three books I’m brokering have close to 500 pages of text. That’s a big, heavy text block. I’m encouraging my clients to choose Smyth Sewing because these books are prime candidates for lost pages. When designing your print books, consider how many pages they will be, how long they must last, and whether they will receive a lot of heavy use. For instance, art books, cookbooks, children’s books, and yearbooks would be prime candidates for Smyth Sewing.


    1. Remember that Smyth Sewing can be done with both paperbound and hard-cover books. This is especially useful for split bindings. You can save money by preparing all text blocks the same (for the most part) and then adding paper covers or hard covers as needed.


    1. Not all commercial printing suppliers, or even all book printers, have Smyth Sewing capabilities. In fact, many printers need to subcontract out all perfect binding and case binding. If you find a dedicated book printer, he will often have in-house perfect binding. If he has in-house case binding that’s even better. If he has in-house Smyth Sewing, that’s best of all. If you think you might need these services, ask if your vendor has the equipment in-house. (One vendor I’m seriously considering for the three jobs mentioned above has all of these capabilities. Therefore, Smyth Sewing the entire job will only cost about $300 extra. I can’t imagine the additional cost–and extra time–for Smyth Sewing if I chose a printer who had to subcontract the work.)


  1. Remember to ask your book printer for samples of printed, bound books (including Smyth Sewn books). You can see how well your printer does this kind of work, and you can show him exactly what you need.

Book Printing: Short-Run Perfect Binding Equipment

Friday, April 10th, 2015

I just saw a video of the new Muller Martini Mitabook, a short-run digital perfect binding machine. I personally think it’s the wave of the future. I think it also says a lot about what we want in our print books at this juncture of publishing.

First the Specs of the Muller Martini Mitabook

To reference Goldilocks and the Three Bears, the Mitabook is not for ultra-short, hand-bound binding runs or semi-automatic short binding runs. Nor is it for long runs in the thousands or multiple thousands of case-bound books. Rather it is squarely aimed at the “in-between runs.” That makes the Mitabook ideal for yearbooks, photobooks, books for young readers, and for some adult books as well. The Mitabook provides the perfect solution for this particular niche market.

Muller Martini will showcase this technology at Dscoop, which the Muller Martini promotional literature describes as “an influential cooperative of HP graphic arts professionals.” The event will be held from March 5 through March 7 in Washington, DC.

Here are some specifics:

  1. The Mitabook can process seven books a minute. That works out to 350 to 400 books per hour,
  2. The Muller Martini Mitabook uses hot-melt, PUR glue, which hardens instantly. The glue transport system does not need cleaning and does not clog if the machine must sit idle.
  3. The Mitabook does not require hanging the book block and cover on a wing (a little like a saddle for a saddle-stitcher). Therefore, the Mitabook avoids the scratch marks on interior images that can occur during case binding.
  4. The Mitabook system will match barcodes on the print book text blocks with barcodes on the covers. If these do not match, the machine will not bind the book. This significantly reduces waste.
  5. The Mitabook does all the traditional casing-in tasks, including making the crimped joint between the cover boards and the spine.
  6. The Mitabook has a very small footprint. Not only does this help in placing the machine on the pressroom floor, but it also means that only one operator is needed to feed the covers and text blocks into the machine and remove and check the completed print books.
  7. A touch screen console makes set-up quick and easy. It also makes size changes for multiple book formats a quick operation.
  8. Muller Martini has also developed a companion product called the Mitacase, which is good for short-run case-making.

How The Mitabook Looks When Up and Running

Here’s the URL for a video on the Muller Martini Mitabook: I would encourage you to copy the URL into your browser and watch the short video, which shows how small the Mitabook really is, how quickly it operates for such a short-run case binder, and how flawlessly it runs with only minimal operator attention. It’s quite revolutionary.

When I saw the video on the Muller Martini Mitabook, its operation seemed smooth, easy, and accurate, with little or no waste. All of the books produced during the video (i.e., after set-up) looked perfect, with the case boards and spines aligned precisely with the text blocks. And changeovers for alternate sized case-bound products appeared to occur in seconds, with the operator using minimal touch screen commands.

What This Development Says About Print Book Publishing

  1. First of all, throughout my years in commercial printing, I have always seen OEMs quickly develop equipment to meet consumer demand. Clearly, there are a lot of people out there who need more than a few hand-case-bound books (or semi-automatic case-bound books), but who don’t need thousands of copies.
  2. Self-published authors who opt for physical print books rather than e-books fit this category, as do children’s book publishers.
  3. Paired with digital printing technology that can individually personalize each text block, this kind of short-run case-binding is ideal. It is a big step above a perfect-bound book, and the product will last for multiple decades. Short-run case-binding also reflects the growing desire for mass customization. People want books that are personal, unique, and durable.
  4. The existence of the Mitabook points to the value placed on photobooks: for weddings, bar mitzvahs, and the like. People are not satisfied with digital-only photos viewed on their smartphones and tablets. They want a personal way to record life-changing events and rites of passage for future generations to see, but they also want an attractive, physical product to showcase these images.

Commercial Printing: Seven Mechanical Binding Options

Friday, November 22nd, 2013

There are a plethora of binding methods ranging from saddle-stitching (short print books, no spine) to perfect binding (paperbacks with a spine) to case binding (hard cover books). Beyond these are some of the less common options that are flexible and durable but that often involve handwork (i.e., they can be expensive).

Plastic Comb Binding

Also known as GBC binding (the name of the table-top device you use to insert these plastic combs), plastic comb binding is used for short run, multi-page print books. First you punch a series of holes parallel to the bind edge of the book, and then you insert a coiled plastic comb (a spine and curved tines) through these holes. The tightly coiled tines of the plastic comb then tighten through these holes in a manner reminiscent of a spiral notebook, leaving a plastic spine running the length of the book.


  1. You can take the comb out again to add or replace pages.
  2. You can print a title on the plastic spine with custom screen printing equipment.
  3. The open print book will lie flat on a table.
  4. You can find these plastic combs in up to 2” diameter, which will hold more than 400 pages (depending on the paper weight).


  1. You can only punch a limited number of sheets at a time using a GBC machine.
  2. Therefore, it’s a slow process and an expensive one. You would use this option to prepare documents for a small group meeting rather than cartons and cartons of print books.

Velo Binding

Here’s another option for binding a limited run of booklets, perhaps for a convention. Velo binding a booklet involves first punching holes parallel to the bind edge (as with the plastic comb process). Then a flat plastic bar with tines is added, with the tines protruding through the holes. Another bar is added on the opposite side of the binding (picture two thin strips of plastic running from the top to the bottom of the 8.5” x 11” sheet at the bind edge). The tines go through the second plastic bar, and then they are cut off and melted to form a permanent bond. Therefore, the two flat plastic bars running the length of the book hold all the pages together and also give you a spine (of sorts) to hold while reading.


  1. Good for short runs
  2. Durable


  1. You can’t really remove them, add pages, and attach them again, as you can do with plastic comb binding.
  2. The open books don’t lie flat.

Tape Binding

Picture a strip of tape covering the spine of a short booklet and then extending onto the front and back covers, just enough to hold the cover and text pages together.


  1. Good for short runs of a short book
  2. Cheap


  1. You can’t remove the tape, add pages, and assemble the book again, as you can do with plastic comb binding.
  2. You can’t print on the spine; after all, it’s just tape.

Screw and Post Binding

First you drill two or more holes along the bind edge of the book. Then you assemble the screws and posts, which include two pieces each. You insert one piece from one side of the print book (let’s say the front cover side) and one post from the other side of the book. Then you screw them together (they are threaded to attach to one another). It’s like screwing the book together from opposite sides (front and back cover) as though it were a collection of thin wood pages.


  1. You can unscrew the binding to add or replace pages (up to the width of the screw and post set).
  2. Durable


  1. This is handwork. It gets expensive if you are producing a lot of books.
  2. There’s no spine on which to print the book title.

String Binding

You’ve seen the books before. They look exotic. You basically thread some flexible substance, like string or twine, through holes along the bind edge of the book, and then you tie the book together. It will then look a little like a photo album. Depending on the material you choose, you can make it look very environmentally conscious.


  1. You can untie the binding to add or replace pages. It also looks cool and exotic.


  1. This is handwork. It gets expensive if you are producing a lot of books.
  2. There’s no spine. Then again, if you’re creating a limited edition of an exotic book, you may not care that you have no spine on which to print the book title.

Coil Binding

I’m sure you’ve used these in school at one time or another. They come in two varieties. Metal or plastic coil notebooks are bound with wire that spirals from the top of the bind edge to the bottom. When laid flat, you’ll notice that the left and right pages don’t align precisely. That’s because of the nature of a spiral.

If you want the facing print book pages to align, you can choose “Wire-O” binding instead. This binding consists of parallel metal “O”s attached to a vertical wire post.

The coil for coil binding comes in plastic (of various colors) or metal. In contrast, the “Wire-O” binding material comes in only one variety: metal wire.


  1. You can fold the covers and the pages back to create a “tablet” (half the size of an open, double-page-spread book).


  1. You don’t have a spine to print on.

Ring Binders and Post Binders

You can write a book on all the options for ring binders, but essentially they still fit into the category of “mechanical binding.” They would include everything from vinyl that has been heat welded over chipboard to expensive fabric glued over chipboard.

They would also include “poly” binders (plastic thick enough not to need binder boards under the material—as with vinyl binders–but also more flexible than vinyl-covered binder boards). And they would also include thicker, rigid plastic binders.

Post Binders have posts running the length of the spine (in a metal apparatus affixed to the spine). You can remove the posts, insert them into the center spreads of a series of magazines, and then put the posts back into the “metal,” essentially creating a bound year’s worth of magazines.


  1. Binders come in a multitude of thicknesses, from about 1/2” to about 3”.
  2. You can easily add or remove pages.
  3. Binders have a spine. On some binders with transparent plastic exterior sleeves, you can slip printed paper sheets into the transparent spine pocket as well as the front and back cover pockets. On other binders, you can screen print your artwork directly onto the covers and spine.


  1. Useful, but a little clunky compared to other options.

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